A Rock Collection Comes From Which Part of Earth

A Rock Collection Comes From Which Part of Earth.

Naturally occurring mineral aggregate

The Grand Canyon is an incision through layers of sedimentary rocks.

In geology,
rock
(or
stone) is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid thing. It is categorized by the minerals included, its chemical composition, and the fashion in which it is formed. Rocks form the Earth’south outer solid layer, the chaff, and most of its interior, except for the liquid outer core and pockets of magma in the asthenosphere. The study of rocks involves multiple subdisciplines of geology, including petrology and mineralogy. It may be limited to rocks found on Earth, or information technology may include planetary geology that studies the rocks of other celestial objects.

Rocks are usually grouped into three primary groups: igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. Igneous rocks are formed when magma cools in the Earth’s crust, or lava cools on the ground surface or the seabed. Sedimentary rocks are formed by diagenesis and lithification of sediments, which in turn are formed by the weathering, transport, and deposition of existing rocks. Metamorphic rocks are formed when existing rocks are subjected to such loftier pressures and temperatures that they are transformed without significant melting.

Humanity has made utilize of rocks since the primeval humans. This early catamenia, called the Stone Age, saw the evolution of many stone tools. Rock was and then used every bit a major component in the construction of buildings and early on infrastructure. Mining adult to extract rocks from the Earth and obtain the minerals within them, including metals. Modern technology has immune the development of new man-fabricated rocks and rock-like substances, such as concrete.

Study

Geology is the study of Globe and its components, including the report of rock formations. Petrology is the report of the character and origin of rocks. Mineralogy is the study of the mineral components that create rocks. The study of rocks and their components has contributed to the geological agreement of Earth’southward history, the archaeological understanding of homo history, and the development of engineering science and engineering in human social club.[1]

While the history of geology includes many theories of rocks and their origins that have persisted throughout human history, the study of rocks was developed as a formal scientific discipline during the 19th century. Plutonism was developed as a theory during this time, and the discovery of radioactivity in 1896 allowed for the radiocarbon dating of rocks. Understanding of plate tectonics developed in the 20th century.[2]

Classification

Rocks are equanimous primarily of grains of minerals, which are crystalline solids formed from atoms chemically bonded into an orderly structure.[four]

: three

Some rocks besides contain mineraloids, which are rigid, mineral-like substances, such equally volcanic glass,[5]

: 55, 79

that lacks crystalline structure. The types and abundance of minerals in a rock are determined by the manner in which it was formed.

Most rocks comprise silicate minerals, compounds that include silica tetrahedra in their crystal lattice, and business relationship for near ane-third of all known mineral species and near 95% of the earth’s crust.[6]
The proportion of silica in rocks and minerals is a major factor in determining their names and properties.[vii]

Rocks are classified according to characteristics such as mineral and chemical composition, permeability, texture of the constituent particles, and particle size. These physical backdrop are the effect of the processes that formed the rocks.[v]
Over the grade of time, rocks tin can be transformed from one type into some other, equally described by a geological model called the stone cycle. This transformation produces 3 general classes of stone: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.

Those three classes are subdivided into many groups. There are, however, no difficult-and-fast boundaries betwixt allied rocks. Past increase or decrease in the proportions of their minerals, they pass through gradations from one to the other; the distinctive structures of one kind of rock may thus be traced, gradually merging into those of some other. Hence the definitions adopted in stone names simply represent to selected points in a continuously graduated series.[8]

Igneous rock

Igneous rock (derived from the Latin discussion
igneus,
pregnant
of fire,
from
ignis
meaning
fire)
[9]
is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. This magma may be derived from fractional melts of pre-existing rocks in either a planet’s pall or crust. Typically, the melting of rocks is acquired past one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature, a decrease in force per unit area, or a change in limerick.[x]

: 591–599

Igneous rocks are divided into ii primary categories:

  • Plutonic or intrusive rocks result when magma cools and crystallizes slowly inside the Earth’s crust. A common example of this type is granite.
  • Volcanic or extrusive rocks result from magma reaching the surface either as lava or
    fragmental ejecta, forming minerals such as pumice or basalt.[v]

Magmas tend to get richer in silica every bit they rise towards the Earth’south surface, a process called
magma differentiation. This occurs both because minerals low in silica crystallize out of the magma as it begins to absurd (Bowen’s reaction series) and because the magma assimilates some of the crustal stone through which it ascends (country rock), and crustal rock tends to be high in silica. Silica content is thus the most important chemical benchmark for classifying igneous stone.[7]
The content of alkali metal oxides is next in importance.[xi]

About 65% of the World’s crust past volume consists of igneous rocks. Of these, 66% are basalt and gabbro, 16% are granite, and 17% granodiorite and diorite. Only 0.vi% are syenite and 0.3% are ultramafic. The oceanic crust is 99% basalt, which is an igneous rock of mafic composition. Granite and similar rocks, known equally granitoids, boss the continental crust.[12]
[13]

Sedimentary rock

Sedimentary rocks are formed at the earth’s surface by the accumulation and cementation of fragments of before rocks, minerals, and organisms[xiv]
or as chemical precipitates and organic growths in water (sedimentation). This process causes clastic sediments (pieces of rock) or organic particles (detritus) to settle and accrue or for minerals to chemically precipitate (evaporite) from a solution. The particulate matter so undergoes compaction and cementation at moderate temperatures and pressures (diagenesis).[v]

: 265–280

[15]

: 147–154

Before being deposited, sediments are formed by weathering of earlier rocks past erosion in a source expanse and then transported to the identify of deposition by water, air current, water ice, mass move or glaciers (agents of denudation).[five]
Virtually 7.9% of the chaff by volume is composed of sedimentary rocks, with 82% of those being shales, while the remainder consists of 6% limestone and 12% sandstone and arkoses.[thirteen]
Sedimentary rocks frequently comprise fossils. Sedimentary rocks form under the influence of gravity and typically are deposited in horizontal or virtually horizontal layers or strata, and may exist referred to every bit stratified rocks.[xvi]

Sediment and the particles of clastic sedimentary rocks can be further classified by grain size. The smallest sediments are clay, followed past silt, sand, and gravel. Some systems include cobbles and boulders as measurements.[17]

Metamorphic rock

Metamorphic rocks are formed past subjecting any stone type—sedimentary stone, igneous stone or another older metamorphic stone—to different temperature and pressure level weather condition than those in which the original rock was formed. This process is called metamorphism, meaning to “modify in form”. The result is a profound alter in concrete properties and chemistry of the stone. The original rock, known every bit the protolith, transforms into other mineral types or other forms of the same minerals, by recrystallization.[5]
The temperatures and pressures required for this process are always higher than those found at the World’s surface: temperatures greater than 150 to 200 °C and pressures greater than 1500 bars.[eighteen]
This occurs, for example, when continental plates collide.[19]

: 31–33, 134–139

Metamorphic rocks compose 27.4% of the chaff by volume.[13]

The three major classes of metamorphic rock are based upon the formation mechanism. An intrusion of magma that heats the surrounding rock causes contact metamorphism—a temperature-dominated transformation. Pressure level metamorphism occurs when sediments are buried deep nether the ground; pressure is dominant, and temperature plays a smaller role. This is termed burying metamorphism, and it can result in rocks such as jade. Where both heat and pressure play a role, the mechanism is termed regional metamorphism. This is typically plant in mountain-edifice regions.[7]

Depending on the structure, metamorphic rocks are divided into two general categories. Those that possess a texture are referred to as foliated; the remainders are termed non-foliated. The name of the rock is then determined based on the types of minerals present. Schists are foliated rocks that are primarily composed of lamellar minerals such as micas. A gneiss has visible bands of differing lightness, with a common example being the granite gneiss. Other varieties of foliated stone include slates, phyllites, and mylonite. Familiar examples of not-foliated metamorphic rocks include marble, soapstone, and serpentine. This co-operative contains quartzite—a metamorphosed form of sandstone—and hornfels.[7]

Though most understanding of rocks comes from those of Earth, rocks make upward many of the universe’due south angelic bodies. In the Solar Organisation, Mars, Venus, and Mercury are equanimous of rock, every bit are many natural satellites, asteroids, and meteoroids. Meteorites that fall to Earth provide evidence of extraterrestrial rocks and their composition. They are typically heavier than rocks on Globe. Asteroid rocks tin also be brought to World through space missions, such as the
Hayabusa
mission.[20]
Lunar rocks and Martian rocks have also been studied.[21]

Man use

The use of rock has had a huge touch on the cultural and technological evolution of the human race. Stone has been used by humans and other hominids for at least ii.5 one thousand thousand years.[22]
Lithic technology marks some of the oldest and continuously used technologies. The mining of rock for its metallic content has been i of the most important factors of homo advancement, and has progressed at different rates in different places, in part because of the kind of metals available from the rock of a region.

Anthropic stone

Anthropic rock is synthetic or restructured rock formed by human being activity. Physical is recognized as a human-made rock constituted of natural and processed rock and having been adult since Aboriginal Rome.[23]
Stone can also be modified with other substances to develop new forms, such as epoxy granite.[24]
Bogus stone has also been developed, such as Coade stone.[25]
Geologist James R. Underwood has proposed anthropic rock as a fourth class of rocks alongside igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.[26]

Building

A stonehouse on the colina in Sastamala, Republic of finland

Stone varies greatly in force, from quartzites having a tensile strength in excess of 300 MPa[27]
to sedimentary stone and then soft it can be crumbled with blank fingers (that is, information technology is
friable).[28]
(For comparison, structural steel has a tensile force of around 350 MPa.[29]) Relatively soft, easily worked sedimentary stone was quarried for construction as early as 4000 BCE in Egypt,[30]
and stone was used to build fortifications in Inner Mongolia as early as 2800 BCE.[31]
The soft rock, tuff, is common in Italian republic, and the Romans used it for many buildings and bridges.[32]
Limestone was widely used in construction in the Heart Ages in Europe
[33]
and remained popular into the 20th century.[34]

Mining

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the globe, from an ore body, vein or seam.[35]
The term also includes the removal of soil. Materials recovered past mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock salt, potash, structure amass and dimension stone. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or mill. Mining in a wider sense comprises extraction of whatsoever resource (east.thousand. petroleum, natural gas, salt or even water) from the earth.[36]

Mining of rock and metals has been washed since prehistoric times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for mineral deposits, assay of the turn a profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and finally reclamation of the land to gear up it for other uses one time mining ceases.[37]

Mining processes may create negative impacts on the environment both during the mining operations and for years afterwards mining has ceased. These potential impacts take led to most of the globe’s nations adopting regulations to manage negative effects of mining operations.[38]

Tools

Stone tools take been used for millions of years by humans and earlier hominids. The Stone Age was a period of widespread stone tool usage.[39]
Early Stone Age tools were simple implements, such as hammerstones and sharp flakes. Middle Stone Age tools featured sharpened points to be used equally projectile points, awls, or scrapers. Late Stone Age tools were adult with adroitness and distinct cultural identities.[40]
Stone tools were largely superseded by copper and bronze tools following the development of metallurgy.

See also

  • Bedrock
  • Edifice material
  • Geologic time scale
  • Geomorphology
  • History of World
  • List of rock types
  • Oldest rock
  • Rock manufacture
  • Stone skipping

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External links



A Rock Collection Comes From Which Part of Earth

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_(geology)