Alexei Romanov Suffered From Hemophilia a Condition That

Alexei Romanov Suffered From Hemophilia a Condition That.

Final heir credible of the last imperial family of Russia (1904–1917)

Alexei Nikolaevich
Tsesarevich of Russia
Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia.jpg

Alexei in 1913

Born (1904-08-12)12 August 1904 [O.S xxx July]
Peterhof Palace, St. Petersburg Governorate, Russia
Died 17 July 1918(1918-07-17)
(anile xiii)
Ipatiev Firm, Yekaterinburg, Russian Soviet Republic
Names
Alexei Nikolaevich Romanov
House Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Father Nicholas Ii of Russian federation
Female parent Alix of Hesse and by Rhine
Religion Russian Orthodox
Signature Alexei Nikolaevich's signature

Alexei Nikolaevich
(Russian:
Алексе́й Никола́евич) (12 August [O.S. 30 July] 1904 – 17 July 1918) was the last Tsesarevich (heir apparent to the throne of the Russian Empire).[note 1]
He was the youngest child and but son of Emperor Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. He was born with haemophilia, which his parents tried treating with the methods of a peasant faith healer named Grigori Rasputin.[3]

After the February Revolution of 1917, the Romanovs were sent into internal exile in Tobolsk, Siberia. After the October Revolution, the family was initially to be tried in a court of law, before the intensification of the Russian Civil War made execution increasingly favorable in the eyes of the Soviet government. With White Army soldiers apace approaching, the Ural Regional Soviet ordered the murder of Alexei, the residuum of his family, and 4 remaining retainers on 17 July 1918. Rumors persisted for decades that Alexei had escaped his execution, with multiple impostors claiming his identity. Alexei’s remains, forth with those of his sis Maria (or Anastasia), were ultimately discovered in a secondary grave near the rest of the Romanov family in 2007. On 17 July 1998, the 80th anniversary of their execution, Alexei’south parents, three of his sisters, and the four retainers, were formally interred in the Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul, while Alexei’s and Maria’s (or Anastasia’s) bones remain in Russian state archives. The Romanov family was canonized every bit passion bearers by the Russian Orthodox Church in 2000.

Alexei is sometimes known to Russian legitimists equally
Alexei II, as they practise not recognize the abdication of his father in favor of his uncle Grand Duke Michael equally lawful.[4]

Advent and personality

[edit]

Alexei was a handsome male child, and he bore a striking resemblance to his mother. His tutor Pierre Gilliard described the 18-month-old Alexei as “one of the handsomest babies one could imagine, with his lovely fair curls and his great blue-grey eyes under their fringe of long crimper lashes”.[5]
A few years later on, Gilliard described Alexei every bit tall for his age, with “a long, finely chiseled face up, delicate features, auburn hair with a coppery glint, and big grayness-bluish eyes like his mother”.[6]
Baroness Sophie Buxhoeveden, his mother’s lady-in-waiting, reflected that “he was a pretty kid, tall for his age, with regular features, excellent night bluish eyes with a spark of mischief in them, dark-brown hair, and an upright figure”.[7]

Alexei was proud of and enjoyed his position every bit tsarevich. Buxhoeveden reflected that “he knew and felt that he was the Tsarevich, and from babyhood mechanically took his place in front of his elder sisters”.[7]
He liked beingness kissed on the hand by the officers and “didn’t miss his risk to boast most it and requite himself airs in front end of his sisters”.[8]
He enjoyed jumping in front of the guards at the front of the Alexander Palace, who would immediately salute him as he walked past. Nicholas forbade the guards to salute Alexei unless another fellow member of the family accompanied him. Alexei was embarrassed “when the salute failed him”, which “marked his first taste of subject”.[9]
On ane occasion, he ordered all of the Finnish officers on various ships to stand before him on the deck of the Standart. He began commanding them, but the Finnish officers did not empathize Russian and stood in defoliation until an aide informed them that Alexei wanted to hear them say, “We wish yous wellness, your Imperial Highness.”[10]
When he was told that a group of officers had arrived to call on him, the 6-year-onetime Alexei told his sisters, “Now girls, run away. I am busy. Someone has simply chosen to run into me on business.”[xi]
Also at 6, he walked into his father’southward written report and saw the Strange Minister Alexander Izvolsky waiting to see Nicholas. Izvolsky remained sitting, and Alexei screamed, “When the heir to the Russian Throne enters a room, people must get upward!”[eleven]

Alexei’s parents indulged his tantrums and mischievous behavior, and they rarely punished him. In 1906, Alexei and his family went on a cruise to Finland. In the middle of the night, the two-year-old Alexei commanded the ship’s band to wake up and play for him.[8]
Instead of punishing Alexei, Nicholas joked “that’s the way to bring up an autocrat!”[12]
Nicholas called Alexei “Alexei the Terrible.”[13]

Alexei loved to nourish army inspections with his father. When he was 3, he wore a miniature army uniform and played with a toy wooden rifle.[8]
From birth, he had the title of “Hetman of all the Cossacks.”[14]
He wore a miniature uniform of a sailor of the Russian navy, and he had his ain Cossack uniform with a fur cap, boots, and dagger.[fourteen]
He ended his daily prayers with “Hurrah!” instead of “amen”. When asked why, he replied that the soldiers on parade e’er said “Hurrah!” when his begetter finished speaking, so he should greet his Heavenly Father in the same manner.[15]
Before he understood the nature of his disease, he said that he wanted to be a warrior-tsar and atomic number 82 armies equally his ancestors had.[xiv]

Alexei resented that he was forbidden from doing what other boys could do because of his hemophilia. When his mother forbade him to ride a bike and play tennis, he asked angrily, “Why can other boys have everything and I nothing?”[16]
All iv of his sisters were achieved horsewomen, but he was forbidden from horseriding.[17]

Alexei had few friends his age and was often lonely. Alexandra did not allow Alexei to play with his Romanov cousins because she was worried that they would knock him down when playing and he might bleed.[18]
Alexei’south companions were his sailor-nanny Derevenko’s two young sons. Derevenko watched them as they played, and he chastised his children if they played too roughly with Alexei.[18]

Alexei was close with his sisters. Gilliard wrote that they “brought into his life an chemical element of youthful merriment that otherwise would take been sorely missed”.[18]

Despite the hemophilia, Alexei was adventurous and restless. Doctor Eugene Botkin’s children noticed Alexei’s inability to “stay in any place or at any game for whatsoever length of time”.[19]
When he was 7, he stole a wheel and rode it around the palace. Shocked, Nicholas ordered every guard to pursue and capture Alexei.[fourteen]
At a children’s political party, Alexei began jumping from table to tabular array. When Derevenko tried to stop him, Alexei shouted, “All grown-ups take to get!”[14]
Recognizing Alexei’s energetic nature, Nicholas ordered that Alexei be allowed “to exercise everything that other children of his age were wont to do, and not to restrain him unless it was absolutely necessary”.[20]

Alexei was ill-behaved and difficult to control. Olga could not manage Alexei’s “peevish atmosphere”.[21]
The only person he obeyed was his father. Sydney Gibbes noted that “ane word [from Nicholas] was always enough to verbal implicit obedience from [Alexei]”.[22]
Buxhoeveden remembered that Alexei had once thrown her parasol in the river, and Nicholas had chastised Alexei: “That is not the way for a gentleman to acquit to a lady. I am ashamed of you, Alexei.”[23]
After his male parent scolded him, Alexei was “scarlet in the confront” and apologized to Sophie.[23]

As a small-scale child, Alexei occasionally played pranks on guests. At a formal dinner party, Alexei removed the shoe of a female guest from nether the table, and showed it to his father. Nicholas sternly told the male child to return the “trophy”, which Alexei did subsequently placing a large ripe strawberry into the toe of the shoe.[24]

As he grew up, Alexei became more than thoughtful and considerate. When he was 9, he sent a collection of his favorite jingles to Gleb Botkin, Eugene Botkin’s son. He asked Gleb, who was talented at drawing, to illustrate the jingles. He fastened a note: “To illustrate and write the jingles nether the drawings. Alexei.” Before handing the annotation to Eugene Botkin, he crossed out his signature and explained, “If I send that newspaper to Gleb with my signature on information technology, then it would be an order which Gleb would have to obey. Simply I mean it only as a request and he doesn’t take to exercise it if he doesn’t want to.”[11]

Alexei enjoyed playing the balalaika.[fourteen]

Alexei’south favorite pet was a spaniel named Joy.[14]
Nicholas gave Alexei an old performing ass named Vanka. Alexei gave sugar cubes to Vanka, and Vanka pulled Alexei around the park in a sled during the winter.[25]

According to Gilliard, Alexei was a simple, affectionate child, just the court spoiled him by the “servile flattery” of the servants and “giddy adulations” of the people around him. Once, a deputation of peasants came to bring presents to Alexei. Derevenko required that they kneel before Alexei. Gilliard remarked that the Tsarevich was “embarrassed and blushed violently”, and when asked if he liked seeing people on their knees before him, he said, “Oh no, but Derevenko says information technology must be and so!” When Gilliard encouraged Alexei to “stop Derevenko insisting on it”, he said that he “dare not”. When Gilliard took the matter up with Derevenko, he said that Alexei was “delighted to be freed from this irksome formality”.[26]

“Alexei was the center of this united family, the focus of all its hopes and angel”, wrote Gilliard. “His sisters worshipped him. He was his parents’ pride and joy. When he was well, the palace was transformed. Everyone and everything in it seemed bathed in sunshine.”[27]

Gilliard eventually convinced Alexei’s parents that granting the boy greater autonomy would help him develop better self-control. Alexei took advantage of his unaccustomed freedom, and began to outgrow some of his earlier foibles.[28]
Courtiers reported that his illness made him sensitive to the hurts of others.[29]

Due to his affliction, Alexei understood that he might not live to adulthood. When he was ten, his older sis Olga found him lying on his back looking at the clouds and asked him what he was doing. “I like to think and wonder”, Alexei replied. Olga asked him what he liked to retrieve about. “Oh, so many things”, the boy responded. “I enjoy the sun and the dazzler of summertime as long every bit I can. Who knows whether i of these days I shall not exist prevented from doing it?”[thirty]

Nicholas’ Colonel Mordinov remembered Alexei:

He had what we Russians usually telephone call “a golden heart”. He easily felt an zipper to people, he liked them and tried to practise his all-time to assistance them, especially when it seemed to him that someone was unjustly hurt. His love, like that of his parents, was based mainly on pity. Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich was an awfully lazy, but very capable boy (I think, he was lazy precisely considering he was capable), he easily grasped everything, he was thoughtful and keen beyond his years … Despite his skilful nature and compassion, he undoubtedly promised to possess a firm and independent character in the future.[31]

Early years

[edit]

Alexei equally an infant in 1904

Alexei (correct) with his crewman nanny Andrei Derevenko aboard the Imperial yacht
Standart
(1908)

Alexei was built-in on 12 August [O.S. 30 July] 1904 in Peterhof Palace, St. petersburg Governorate, Russian Empire. He was the youngest of 5 children of Emperor Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. His father was the eldest son of Emperor Alexander III and Princess Dagmar of Denmark, and his mother was the sixth child of Louis Four, Yard Duke of Hesse and Princess Alice of the United Kingdom. His paternal slap-up-grandparents were Alexander Ii of Russian federation, Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Louise of Hesse-Kassel, while his maternal slap-up-grandparents were Queen Victoria and her hubby Albert, Prince Consort. His older sisters were the Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia.

Alexei’south nascency was greeted with widespread joy, because he was the first son Nicholas had had subsequently four daughters. When she woke up from the chloroform, Alexandra saw the happy faces around her and exclaimed, “Oh, information technology cannot be truthful. Information technology cannot be truthful. Is it really a male child?”[32]
Nicholas wrote in his diary that today was “a dandy and “unforgettable day for us . . . in that location are no words to thank God enough for sending usa this condolement in a time of sore trials.”[33]
According to Grand Duke Constantine Constantinovich of Russia, Nicholas’ younger brother Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich “was radiant with happiness at no longer beingness heir.”[33]
Baroness Sophie Buxhoeveden remembered that “we were about deafened by the church bells ringing all mean solar day”.[34]
Petrograd “was ablaze with flags” and “the people gave themselves over to public rejoicing.”[35]
Nicholas granted political amnesty to prisoners and set upward a fund for military and naval scholarships.[36]

Nicholas named Alexei subsequently Alexis of Russia, his favorite emperor.[37]
His doting family called him “Baby.” He was later also affectionately referred to as Alyosha (Алёша).

Equally before long as he was built-in, Alexei was granted the title of tsarevich and heir credible to the Purple Throne of Russia. An official declaration read, “From at present on, in accordance with the Fundamental Laws of the Empire, the Purple title of Heir Tsarevich, and all the rights pertaining to it, vest to Our Son Alexei.”.[38]

Alexei was christened on 3 September 1904 in the chapel in Peterhof Palace. His principal godparents were his paternal grandmother and his great-uncle, Grand Knuckles Alexei Alexandrovich. His other godparents included his oldest sis, Olga; his great-grandfather Rex Christian Nine of Denmark; King Edward Seven of the United Kingdom, the Prince of Wales and Wilhelm Ii, German Emperor. Equally Russia was at war with Nihon, all active soldiers and officers of the Russian Army and Navy were named honorary godfathers.[39]
[
page needed
]

The christening marked the offset time that some of the younger members of the Regal Family, including some of the younger sons of G Knuckles Konstantin Konstantinovich; the Chiliad Duchesses Olga and Tatiana; and their cousin Princess Irina Alexandrovna, attended an official ceremony. For the occasion, the boys wore miniature war machine uniforms, and the girls wore smaller versions of the courtroom dress and little kokoshniks.[
citation needed
]

The sermon was delivered by John of Kronstadt. The babe was carried to the font past the elderly Princess Maria Mikhailovna Galitzine, Mistress of the Robes. As a precaution, she had rubber soles put on her shoes to foreclose her slipping and dropping him.

Countess Sophie Buxhoeveden recalled:[40]

The infant lay on a pillow of cloth of gold, slung to the Princess’s shoulders by a broad gilt ring. He was covered with the heavy textile-of-gold drapery, lined with ermine, worn by the heir to the crown. The mantle was supported on one side by Prince Alexander Sergeiovich Dolgorouky, the G Marshal of the Court, and on the other by Count [Paul] Benckendorff, as decreed by custom and wise precaution. The infant wept loudly, every bit might whatsoever ordinary babe when old Male parent Yanishev dipped him in the font. His four small sisters, in curt Court dresses, gazed open-eyed at the ceremony, Olga Nicholaevna, and so ix years old, being in the of import position of ane of the godmothers. According to Russian custom, the Emperor and Empress were non nowadays at the baptism, just directly later the ceremony, the Emperor went to the church. Both he and the Empress always confessed to feeling very nervous on these occasions, for fright that the Princess might slip, or that Male parent Yanishev, who was very old, might drop the babe in the font.

Hemophilia

[edit]

The former palace of Russian emperors in the Smoothen Białowieża Forest, where Alexei had a peculiarly grave crisis, early October 1912.

The Imperial family in 1913, in Rostov

Pierre Gilliard and Alexei

Alexei and boatswain Derevenko

Nicholas II rows his son on a boat in the Alexander Park (1911).

Alexei inherited hemophilia from his mother Alexandra, an Ten chromosome hereditary condition that typically affects males, which she had acquired through the line of her maternal grandmother Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. It was known as the “Royal Disease” because and then many descendants of the intermarried European regal families had information technology (or carried it, in the case of females.) In 2009, genetic analysis determined that Alexei had hemophilia B.[41]
[42]

At showtime, Alexei seemed like a healthy, ordinary baby. He weighed 11 pounds at birth. His paternal aunt Xenia wrote that “he’south an amazingly hefty babe with a chest like a butt and generally has the air of a warrior knight.”[43]
After his umbilical cord was cut, his navel continued to bleed for hours and his blood did not clot. Nicholas wrote that Alexei lost “one/eight to 1/9 of the total quantity” of his blood in 48 hours.[44]
Nicholas reflected in his diary that “Alix and I were very alarmed by the haemorrhage of young Alexei that came at intervals from his umbilical cord until evening. How painful it is to experience such anxieties!”[45]

Nicholas and Alexandra decided not to reveal what Alexei’south illness was to the Russian public or even to family members. Afterwards Alexei’s first bleeding assail, Alexandra wrote, “Oh, what ache it was… not to let others see the knife digging in ane.”[46]
Co-ordinate to his French tutor, Pierre Gilliard, the nature of his disease was kept a state secret.

At that place were rumors about what Alexei’s disease was, because of the secrecy effectually it. Guesses ranged from a “certain form of infantile tuberculosis which gives rise to acute alert” to “i of the layers of his skin was missing.”[47]
An American mag ascribed Alexei’s “ill wellness” to “the misfortune that and then many residences of the Tzars exit much to exist desired from the point of view of sanitary scientific discipline.”[48]
After Alexei’s life-threatening hemorrhage at Spala, the American printing speculated that Alexei had been stabbed “during an unguarded moment” by a “nihilist.”[49]
The Times observed that the “incomprehensible silence of the Courtroom bulletins” gave “costless scope to the sensation-mongers.”[fifty]

When he was 5, Alexei was assigned two navy sailors who monitored him at all times to ensure that he wouldn’t injure himself. His parents appointed two sailors from the Imperial Navy: Petty Officeholder Andrei Derevenko and his assistant Seaman Klementy Nagorny.[51]
Anna Vyrubova, Alexandra’southward friend, remembered that “Derevenko was and so patient and resourceful, that he often did wonders in alleviating the pain. I can still hear the plaintive voice of Alexis begging the big crewman, ‘Lift my arm,’ ‘Put up my leg,’ ‘Warm my easily,’ and I tin can see the patient, calm-eyed human being working for hours to give comfort to the trivial pain-wracked limbs.”[52]

His hemophilia was so astringent that fiddling injuries such as a bruise, a nosebleed or a cut were potentially life-threatening. His parents constantly worried almost him. In addition, the recurring episodes of illness and long recoveries interfered greatly with Alexei’s babyhood and education.[53]

Nicholas and Alexandra believed that Grigori Rasputin, a peasant monk, had the power to heal Alexei. Due to the secrecy effectually Alexei’s ideas, there are few records about Alexei’s attacks and how often Rasputin treated him.

In the autumn of 1907, Alexei fell and hurt his leg when he was playing in the Alexander Park. The fall triggered an internal hemorrhage.[54]
His paternal aunt G Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia reflected that “the poor child lay in such pain, dark patches under his optics and his little body all distorted, and the leg terribly bloated.”[55]
The doctors could practise nothing. Alexandra telegraphed Princess Anastasia of Montenegro and asked her to discover Rasputin. Rasputin prayed over Alexei and told Alexei “Your pain is going abroad. Yous will soon exist well. You must thank God for healing y’all. And now, go to sleep.”[56]
Soon after Rasputin left, the swelling in Alexei’s leg went down. 1000 Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia was amazed by Alexei’due south swift recovery, and she wrote that the next morning Alexei “was not just live – simply well. He was sitting up in bed, the fever gone, the eyes clear and bright, not a sign of any swelling on his leg.”[57]

In September 1912, Alexei and his family unit visited their hunting retreat in the Białowieża Forest. On v September Alexei jumped into a rowboat and hit his groin on the oarlocks. A large bruise appeared within minutes only in a calendar week reduced in size.[58]
In mid-September, the family moved to Spała (then in Russian Poland). On 2 Oct, Alexei accompanied his mother on a drive in the woods. The “juddering of the carriage had caused still healing hematoma in his upper thigh to rupture and start bleeding again.”[59]
He had to be carried out of the carriage in an almost unconscious state. His temperature rose, his heartbeat dropped, and he hemorrhaged in his upper thigh and belly. For 11 days, he screamed “O Lord take mercy on me!” and begged Alexandra, “Mama, help me!”[60]
He asked Alexandra to “build me a trivial monument of stones in the woods” and asked “When I’yard expressionless, it won’t hurt any more, volition it?”[60]
Alexandra never left his bedside, and she refused to rest or eat. Nicholas “took turns with Alix to sit with Alexei,” merely he “rushed weeping bitterly to his study” when he saw Alexei scream.[sixty]
On half-dozen October, Alexei’s fever rose to 39 degrees and he hemorrhaged into his stomach. On 8 Oct, Alexei received the last sacrament.[61]
Alexei’s tutor, Pierre Gilliard, wrote to his children, “Pray, my children, pray daily and fervently for our precious heir.”[62]
On x Oct, a medical bulletin announcing Alexei’s impending decease was published in the newspapers.

On 9 October, Alexandra asked her lady-in-waiting and all-time friend, Anna Vyrubova,[63]
[64]
to secure the help of Rasputin. According to his daughter, Rasputin received the telegram on 12 October[notation 2]
On 9 Oct, Alexandra received a short telegram from Rasputin: “The little one volition non die. Do not permit the doctors [c.q. Eugene Botkin and Vladimir Derevenko] to bother him too much.”[66]
Alexei’s temperature dropped, and he began to improve. According to Full general Mosolov, the doctors “seemed in utter consternation”[67]
at Alexei’s sudden recovery. On 10 October, Md Eugene Botkin wrote to his children that “our priceless patient” was “undoubtedly significantly improve.”[68]
The positive trend continued throughout the side by side day.[69]
On 19 October Alexei’s condition was much meliorate and the hematoma disappeared. The boy had to undergo orthopedic therapy to straighten his left leg.[lxx]
Feodorov confirmed that Alexei’south recovery was “wholly inexplicable, from a medical point of view.”[71]

Co-ordinate to Pierre Gilliard’s 1921 memoir,

The Tsar had resisted the influence of Rasputin for a long time. At the beginning he had tolerated him because he cartel not weaken the Tsarina’south faith in him – a faith which kept her alive. He did non like to send him away for, if Alexei Nicolaievich had died, in the eyes of the mother he would have been the murderer of his own son.[72]

Observers and scholars accept offered suggestions for Rasputin’s apparent positive effect on Alexei: he used hypnotism, administered herbs to the boy, or his advice to prevent too much action past the doctors aided the boy’s healing. Others speculated that, with the data he got from his confidante at the court, lady-in-waiting Anna Vyrubova, Rasputin timed his “interventions” for times when Alexei was already recovering, and claimed all the credit. Courtroom physician Botkin believed that Rasputin was a adventurer and that his credible healing powers were based on the use of hypnosis but Rasputin did not go interested in this practice before 1913 and his teacher Gerasim Papandato was expelled from Petrograd.[73]
[74]
Felix Yusupov, i of Rasputin’s enemies, suggested that he secretly gave Alexei Tibetan herbs which he got from quack doctor Peter Badmayev, but these drugs were rejected by the court.[75]
[76]
Maria Rasputin believed her father exercised magnetism.[77]

Writers from the 1920s had a variety of explanations for the apparent effects of Rasputin. Greg Male monarch thinks such explanations fail to have into account those times when Rasputin manifestly healed the boy, despite existence 2600 km (1650 miles) away. For historian Fuhrmann, these ideas on hypnosis and drugs flourished because the Imperial Family lived in such isolation from the wider globe.[78]
(“They lived almost as much apart from Russian club every bit if they were settlers in Canada.”[78]
[79]) Moynahan says, “In that location is no evidence that Rasputin ever summoned up spirits, or felt the demand to; he won his admirers through forcefulness of personality, not by tricks.”[80]
Shelley said that the secret of Rasputin’southward power lay in the sense of at-home, gentle forcefulness, and shining warmth of conviction.[81]
Radzinsky wrote in 2000 that Rasputin believed he truly possessed a supernatural healing ability or that his prayers to God saved the boy.[82]

Gilliard,[83]
the French historian Hélène Carrère d’Encausse[84]
[85]
and Diarmuid Jeffreys, a journalist, speculated that Rasputin may accept halted the administration of aspirin. This pain-relieving analgesic had been bachelor since 1899 only would have worsened Alexei’s condition.[86]
[87]
Because aspirin is an antiaggregant and has blood-thinning properties; it prevents clotting, and promotes haemorrhage which could have caused the hemarthrosis. The “anti-inflammatory drug” would accept worsened Alexei’s joints’ swelling and hurting.[88]
[89]
Co-ordinate to historian M. Nelipa, Robert K. Massie was correct to suggest that psychological factors play a part in the course of the disease.[90]

Childhood

[edit]

Alexei on horseback in the uniform of the Nijni Novgorod Dragoons. In the background parts of the Alexander Palace tin exist seen. 1911

Alexei in uniform of the Jaeger regiment of the Royal family

Standing left to correct: footman Zhuravski, Terenty Ivanovich Chemodurov, Vasiliev, Petrov, Pierre Gilliard, Charles Sydney Gibbes. Second line: Vladimir Derevenko, Elizaveta Ersberg, Alexandra Tegleva, Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich, Maria Gustavna Tutelberg, Kolya Derevenko, Alexei Derevenko, Alexandr Derevenko, and Sergei Derevenko; Tsarskoe Selo in 1916.

During Earth War I, he lived with his father at ground forces headquarters in Mogilev for long stretches of time and observed military life.[91]
Alexei became one of the beginning Boy Scouts in Russia.[92]
[93]

In December 1916, Major-General Sir John Hanbury-Williams, head of the British military at Stavka, received discussion of the expiry of his son in action with the British Expeditionary Strength in France. Tsar Nicholas sent twelve-twelvemonth-onetime Alexei to sit with the grieving father. “Papa told me to come sit with you as he idea you lot might feel lonely tonight,” Alexei told the general.[94]
Alexei, like all the Romanov men, grew upward wearing sailor uniforms and playing at state of war from the time he was a toddler. His father began to prepare him for his futurity function as Tsar by inviting Alexei to sit in on long meetings with government ministers.[29]

Stavka

[edit]

Portrait of Alexei, dressed in the soldier’s coat, cap and shoulder-boards of a corporal

During World War I, Alexei joined his father at Stavka, when his begetter became the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Regular army in 1915. Alexei seemed to like war machine life very much and became very playful and energetic. In one of his father’s notes to his mother, he said “[I] take come up in from the garden with wet sleeves and boots as Alexei sprayed us at the fountain. Information technology is his favorite game […] peals of laughter ring out. I keep an eye, in society to run into that things exercise not go too far.” Alexei even ate the soldiers’ black bread, and refused when he was offered a repast that he would eat in his palace, proverb “Information technology’s not what soldiers eat”. In Dec 1915, Rasputin was invited to see Alexei when the 11-year-quondam boy was accidentally thrown against the window of a train and his nose began to bleed.

In 1916, he was given the title of Lance Corporal, of which he was very proud. Alexei’s favorites were the foreigners of Belgium, Britain, France, Japan, Italy, and Serbia, and in favor, adopted him as their mascot. Hanbury-Williams, whom Alexei liked, wrote: “As time went on and his shyness wore off he treated us like erstwhile friends and […] had ever some bit fun with us. With me it was to brand sure that each button on my coat was properly fastened, a habit which naturally made me accept great care to have ane or two unbuttoned, in which case he used to at one time to finish and tell me that I was ‘untidy again,’ give a sigh at my lack of attention to these details and cease and carefully button me upwardly again.”

Imprisonment of the Royal family unit

[edit]

Nicholas and Alexei sawing wood in captivity at Tobolsk during the winter of 1917

The imperial family was arrested following the Feb Revolution of 1917, which resulted in the abdication of Nicholas II. When he was in captivity at Tobolsk, Alexei complained in his diary that he was “bored” and begged God to have “mercy” on him. He was permitted to play occasionally with Kolya, the son of one of his doctors, and with a kitchen male child named Leonid Sednev. As he became older, Alexei seemed to tempt fate and injure himself on purpose. While in Siberia, he rode a sled down the stairs of the prison house and injured himself in the groin. The hemorrhage was very bad, and he was so ill that he could non be moved immediately when the Bolsheviks relocated his parents and older sister Maria to Yekaterinburg in April 1918. However, neither Nicholas Ii nor Empress Alexandra mention anything near a sledding accident in their diaries, and in fact primary resources such as letters of Empress Alexandra and the diaries of both Nicholas Two and Alexandra state that the haemorrhage was caused by a cough fit.[95]
[96]
On xxx March (12 April) 1918, Empress Alexandra recorded in her diary: ‘Baby stays in bed equally fr[om] coughing so difficult has a slight haemorrhage in the abdom[en].[97]
Every twenty-four hours from then onwards until her removal to Yekaterinburg, Alexandra recorded Alexei’s condition in her diary. Alexei and his 4 other sisters joined the residual of the family weeks afterwards.[98]
He was reliant on a wheelchair for the remaining weeks of his life.

Death

[edit]

Tsesarevich Alexei in his army uniform with sis Tatiana in 1917.

The Tsesarevich was murdered on 17 July 1918 anile 13 in the cellar room of the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg. The killings were carried out by forces of the Bolshevik secret constabulary under Yakov Yurovsky. According to one account of the execution, the family was told to get up and go dressed in the heart of the nighttime because they were going to be moved. Nicholas 2 carried Alexei to the cellar room. His mother asked for chairs to exist brought so that she and Alexei could sit downward. When the family and their servants were settled, Yurovsky announced that they were to exist executed. The firing squad offset killed Nicholas, the Tsarina, and the two male person servants. Alexei remained sitting in the chair, “terrified,” before the assassins turned on him and shot at him repeatedly. The male child remained live and the killers tried to stab him multiple times with bayonets. “Nothing seemed to work,” wrote Yurovsky later. “Though injured, he continued to live.” Unbeknownst to the killing team, the Tsarevich’s torso was protected by a shirt wrapped in precious gems that he wore beneath his tunic. Finally Yurovsky fired 2 shots into the male child’south head, and he fell silent.[99]

For decades (until all the bodies were constitute and identified, come across beneath) conspiracy theorists suggested that i or more of the family somehow survived the slaughter. Several people claimed to be surviving members of the Romanov family following the assassinations. People who take pretended to exist the Tsarevich include: Alexei Poutziato, Joseph Veres, Heino Tammet, Michael Goleniewski and Vassili Filatov. However, scientists considered it extremely unlikely that he escaped death, due to his lifelong hemophilia.[
citation needed
]

2007 remains establish and 2008 identification of remains

[edit]

The last known photograph of Alexei and sister Olga aboard the steamship
Rus
that took them to Yekaterinburg in May 1918.

On 23 August 2007, a Russian archaeologist announced the discovery of two burned, partial skeletons at a bonfire site nearly Yekaterinburg that appeared to match the site described in Yurovsky’s memoirs. The archaeologists said the bones are from a boy who was roughly between the ages of twelve and fifteen years at the time of his death and of a young woman who was roughly betwixt the ages of 15 and nineteen years old.[100]
Anastasia was seventeen years, one month old at the time of the bump-off, while Maria was 19 years, i month old. Alexei was two weeks shy of his fourteenth altogether. Alexei’s elderberry sisters, Olga and Tatiana, were twenty-two and twenty-one years old, respectively, at the time of the assassination. Along with the remains of the two bodies, archaeologists found “shards of a container of sulfuric acid, nails, metal strips from a wooden box, and bullets of various quotient.” The bones were found using metal detectors and metal rods as probes. Also, striped material was found that appeared to accept been from a blue-and-white striped fabric; Alexei commonly wore a blue-and-white striped undershirt.

On xxx April 2008, Russian forensic scientists announced that Deoxyribonucleic acid testing had proven that the remains belong to the Tsarevich Alexei and the One thousand Duchess Maria.[101]
Dna data, made public in July 2008, that was obtained from the Yekaterinburg site and repeated independent testing by laboratories such equally the Academy of Massachusetts Medical School revealed that the final two missing Romanov remains were indeed authentic and that the entire Romanov family lived in the Ipatiev Firm. In March 2009, results of the DNA testing were published, confirming that the two bodies discovered in 2007 were those of Tsarevich Alexei and M Duchess Maria.[102]
[103]

Sainthood

[edit]

Saint Alexei Romanov

Saint, Tsesarevich and Passion bearer
Honored in Russian Orthodox Church
Canonized 1981 and 2000 by Russian Orthodox Church Away and the Russian Orthodox Church
Major shrine Church on Claret, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Feast 17 July

The Romanov family unit had been canonized equally holy martyrs in 1981 by the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, which had developed among emigres after the Russian Revolution and the World Wars. Later on the decline of the Soviet Union, the regime of Russian federation agreed with the Russian Orthodox Church to have the bodies of Tsar Nicholas Ii, Tsarina Alexandra, and 3 of their daughters (which were found at the execution site) interred at St. Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. petersburg on 17 July 1998, eighty years after they were executed.[
citation needed
]

In 2000, Alexei and his family were canonized every bit passion bearers by the Russian Orthodox Church.[104]

Equally noted, the remains of Alexei and Maria’s (or Anastasia’s) bodies were found in 2008. Every bit of 2015, Alexei’s remains had not yet been interred with the rest of his family, equally the Russian Orthodox Church building has requested more DNA testing to ensure that his identity was confirmed.[105]

Historical significance

[edit]

Alexei was the heir apparent to the Romanov Throne. Paul I had passed laws forbidding women to succeed to the throne (unless in that location were no legitimate male dynasts left, in which case, the throne would laissez passer to the closest female relative of the last Tsar). He had established this dominion in revenge for what he perceived to have been the illegal behavior of his mother, Catherine Ii (“the Nifty”), in deposing his father Peter III.

Nicholas 2 was forced to abdicate on 15 March [O.S. 2 March] 1917. He did this in favour of his twelve-year-old son Alexei, who ascended the throne nether a regency. Nicholas afterward decided to change his original abdication. Whether that human action had whatsoever legal validity is open to speculation. Nicholas consulted with doctors and others and realised that he would have to be separated from Alexei if he abdicated in favour of his son. Non wanting Alexei to be parted from the family in this crisis, Nicholas altered the abdication document in favour of his younger brother Chiliad Knuckles Michael Alexandrovich of Russia. After receiving advice about whether his personal security could be guaranteed, Michael declined to accept the throne without the people’s approval through an ballot held by the proposed Constituent Assembly. No such referendum was e’er held.[106]

Grigori Rasputin rose in political power because the Tsarina believed that he could heal Alexei’s hemophilia, or his attacks. Rasputin advised the Tsar that the Groovy War would be won once he (Tsar Nicholas 2) took command of the Russian Ground forces. Following this advice was a serious mistake, as the Tsar had no military experience. The Tsarina, Empress Alexandra, a securely religious woman, came to rely upon Rasputin and believe in his ability to help Alexei where conventional doctors had failed. Historian Robert K. Massie explored this theme in his book,
Nicholas and Alexandra.

Massie contends that caring for Alexei seriously diverted the attention of his male parent, Nicholas 2, and the rest of the Romanovs from the business organization of war and government.[107]

Tsarevich Alexei Island (Russian:
Остров Цесаревича Алексея), later renamed Maly Taymyr, was named in honour of Alexei by the 1913 Arctic Sea Hydrographic Expedition led by Boris Vilkitsky on behalf of the Russian Hydrographic Service.[108]

Honours

[edit]


  • Russian Empire:[109]

    • Knight of the Purple Club of Saint Andrew the Apostle the Outset-called,
      11 August 1904
    • Knight of the Imperial Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky,
      11 August 1904
    • Knight of the Imperial Club of the White Eagle,
      11 August 1904
    • Knight of the Imperial Society of Saint Anna, 1st Form,
      xi August 1904
    • Knight of the Royal Order of Saint Stanislaus, 1st Class,
      11 August 1904
    • Saint George Medal, 4th Class,
      17 October 1915


  • France
    : K Cross of the National Order of the Legion of Honour,
    8 July 1914
    [110]

  • Sweden: Knight of the Purple Guild of the Seraphim,
    27 June 1909
    [111]

  • Kingdom of Italy: Knight of the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation,
    25 October 1909
    [112]

  • Qing dynasty: Purple Society of the Double Dragon[
    citation needed
    ]

Archives

[edit]

Alexei’south diary, which was presumably kept past his tutors and relates his daily activities for January and February 1917, is written both in French and English and is preserved in the “Grand Duchess Kseniia Aleksandrovna Papers” collection in the Hoover Institution Archives (Stanford, California, U.s.).[113]

Ancestry

[edit]

The royal haemophilia line

[edit]

Queen Victoria

20
Albert

XY
Victoria

Ten?
Edward Seven

XY
Alice

Xx
Louis 4

XY
Alfred

XY
Helena

Ten?
Louise

X?
Arthur

XY
Leopold

xY
Helen

XX
Beatrice

Xx
Henry

XY
Victoria

X?
Elisabeth

X?
Irene

20
Henry

XY
Ernest Louis

XY
Frederick

xY
Alix

20
Nicholas II

XY
Alice

20
Alexander

XY
Waldemar

xY
Sigismund

XY
Henry

xY
Olga

Xx?
Tatiana

20?
Maria

Xx?
Anastasia

20?
Alexei

xY
May

X?
Rupert

xY
Maurice

XY
Alexander

XY
Victoria Eugenie

Twenty
Alfonso Xiii

XY
Leopold

xY
Maurice

XY
Alfonso

xY
Jaime

XY
Beatriz

X?
Maria Cristina

X?
Juan
XY
Gonzalo

xY

Legend: X – unaffected Ten chromosome; x – affected X chromosome; Y – Y chromosome; ? – unknown carrier condition
Source:
Aronova-Tiuntseva, Yelena; Herreid, Clyde Freeman (twenty September 2003). “Hemophilia: ‘The Royal Disease’
(PDF). SciLinks. National Science Teachers Association. p. 7. Archived from the original
(PDF)
on 10 January 2018.

Notes

[edit]


  1. ^

    The title tsesarevich was introduced in the 1797 Pauline Laws equally the title of the heir apparent of the Emperor of Russia. The older tsarevich was a championship given to any son of a tsar, and historically also to sons of non-Russian rulers, due east.grand. of Crimea, Siberia or Georgia. The 1797 law abolished tsarevish as official championship, fifty-fifty though sons of tsars continued to be referred to every bit tsarevich in informal use.[ane]
    [2]

  2. ^

    If Rasputin’s daughter was right nearly the day that her father responded -13 October- “the longstanding claim that Rasputin had somehow alleviated Alexei’due south status is just fictitious.”[65]

References

[edit]


  1. ^


    Macedonsky, Dimitry (2005–2006). “Hail, Son of Caesar! A Titular History of Romanov Scions”.
    European Royal History Periodical.
    eight.3
    (XLV): nineteen–27.



  2. ^



    Burke’s Royal Families of the Earth Two. Shush’s Peerage Ltd. 1980. p. 65. ISBN978-0-85011-029-half-dozen.



  3. ^


    “Alexis”.
    Encloypaedia Britannica
    . Retrieved
    22 Apr
    2019
    .



  4. ^


    “The Abdication of Nicholas II: 100 Years Later on”.
    The Russian Legitimist. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved
    30 January
    2018
    .



  5. ^

    Pierre Gilliard, Thirteen Years at the Russian Courtroom, p. 26

  6. ^

    Robert K. Massie, “Nicholas and Alexandra,” p. 144
  7. ^


    a




    b




    “The Life and Tragedy of Alexandra – Chapter XVI – The Empress and Her Family”.
    world wide web.alexanderpalace.org
    . Retrieved
    16 July
    2021
    .


  8. ^


    a




    b




    c



    Helen Rappaport, “The Romanov Sisters: The Lost Lives of the Daughters of Nicholas & Alexandra,” p. 109

  9. ^

    Wheeler and Rives, Dome, p. 356

  10. ^

    Kellogg Durland, Imperial Romances of To-24-hour interval, 206
  11. ^


    a




    b




    c



    Robert K. Massie, “Nicholas and Alexandra,” p. 139

  12. ^

    Durland, Royal Romances, p. 206

  13. ^

    Welch, Romanovs and Mr Gibbes, p. 37
  14. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    e




    f




    k



    Robert One thousand. Massie, “Nicholas and Alexandra,” p. 140

  15. ^

    Kellogg Durland, Purple Romances of To-day, 206-7

  16. ^

    Radziwill, Taint, p. 196

  17. ^

    Helen Rappaport, “The Romanov Sisters: The Lost Lives of the Daughters of Nicholas & Alexandra,” p. 175
  18. ^


    a




    b




    c



    Robert Thousand. Massie, “Nicholas and Alexandra,” p. 142

  19. ^

    Botkin, Real Romanovs, pp. 73–4

  20. ^

    Helen Rappaport, “The Romanov Sisters: The Lost Lives of the Daughters of Nicholas & Alexandra,” p. 177

  21. ^

    Radziwill, Taint, p. 397

  22. ^

    Untitled TS memoirs, List ane (82) Sydney Gibbes Papers, Bodleian Library, fo 4.
  23. ^


    a




    b



    Sophie Buxhoeveden, Earlier The Tempest, p. 311

  24. ^

    Massie, pp. 136–143

  25. ^

    Robert K. Massie, “Nicholas and Alexandra,” p. 141

  26. ^


    “Pierre Gilliard – Thirteen Years at the Russian Court – memoirs of Nicholas, Alexandra and their family – Influence of Rasputin – Vyrubova – My Tutorial Troubles”.
    alexanderpalace.org. Archived from the original on 8 October 2010. Retrieved
    30 October
    2010
    .



  27. ^

    Robert Thou. Massie,
    Nicholas and Alexandra,
    1967, p. 137.

  28. ^

    Massie, p. 145
  29. ^


    a




    b



    Massie, pp. 136–146

  30. ^

    Massie, p. 143

  31. ^

    Zeepvat, Charlotte, The Photographic camera and the Tsars: A Romanov Family Album, Sutton Publishing Limited, 2004, p. 20

  32. ^

    Mouchanow, Lifelong Passion, p 154-5
  33. ^


    a




    b



    Simon Sebag Montefiore, The Romanovs, p. 518

  34. ^

    Buxhoeveden, Before the Tempest, pp. 237–eight.

  35. ^

    New Czarevitch’, Daily Express, 13 August 1904.

  36. ^

    The Cesarevitch’, The Times, 25 August 1904.

  37. ^

    Carolly Erickson, Alexandra: The Concluding Tsarina, p. 146

  38. ^

    Helen Rappaport, “The Romanov Sisters: The Lost Lives of the Daughters of Nicholas & Alexandra,” p. 75

  39. ^

    Baroness Sophie Buxhoeveden,
    The Life and Tragedy of Alexandra Feodorovna, 1928.

  40. ^


    “The Life and Tragedy of Alexandra – Affiliate XII -The Russo-Japanese War”.
    www.alexanderpalace.org
    . Retrieved
    16 July
    2021
    .



  41. ^


    Michael Toll (eight October 2009). “Case Closed: Famous Royals Suffered From Hemophilia”.
    ScienceNOW Daily News. AAAS. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009. Retrieved
    9 October
    2009
    .



  42. ^


    Evgeny I. Rogaev; et al. (8 October 2009). “Genotype Analysis Identifies the Crusade of the “Royal Disease”“.
    Science.
    326
    (5954): 817. Bibcode:2009Sci…326..817R. doi:x.1126/science.1180660. PMID 19815722. S2CID 206522975. Archived from the original on 13 Oct 2009. Retrieved
    9 October
    2009
    .



  43. ^

    Mouchanow, Lifelong Passion, p. 245

  44. ^

    Simon Sebag Montefiore, The Romanovs, p.519

  45. ^

    Nicholas and Alexandra: The Terminal Imperial Family, p. 237.

  46. ^

    Lifelong Passion, p. 249.

  47. ^

    Ular, Russia from Inside, p. 41

  48. ^

    The Iii-year-old Heir to the Throne of the Czar’, Current Literature 43, no. ane, July 1907, p. 38

  49. ^

    “Daily News, Maryland, 23 Oct 1912

  50. ^

    “The Times, iv November 1912.

  51. ^

    Kurth, Peter, “Tsar: the lost globe of Nicholas and Alexandra”, Allen & Unwin, 1998, p. 74, ISBN i-86448-911-1

  52. ^

    Robert K Massie, “Nicholas and Alexandra,” p. 138

  53. ^


    Yegorov, O. (21 Feb 2018). “Royal diseases: 4 Russian rulers and heirs leveled by sickness”. Russia Beyond the Headlines. Retrieved
    xix February
    2020
    .



  54. ^

    Helen Rappaport, Romanov Sisters, p. 111.

  55. ^

    Vorres, Final Grand Duchess, p. 142

  56. ^

    Helen Rappaport, Romanov Sisters, p. 112

  57. ^

    Vorres, Last Grand Duchess, pp. 142–3

  58. ^

    M. Nelipa (2015) Alexei.
    Russia’s Concluding Imperial Heir: A Chronicle of Tragedy, pp. 76-77.

  59. ^

    Helen Rappaport, Romanov Sisters, p. 179.
  60. ^


    a




    b




    c



    Simon Sebag Montefiore, The Romanovs, p. 555

  61. ^

    M. Nelipa (2015)
    ALEXEI, Russia’s Last Imperial Heir: A Chronicle of Tragedy.
    Affiliate 3, p. 84.

  62. ^

    “Melnik-Botkina, Vospominaniya, p. 124

  63. ^

    Vyrubova, p. 94

  64. ^

    Moe, p. 156.

  65. ^

    M. Nelipa (2015)
    Alexei, p. xc.

  66. ^

    Fuhrmann, pp. 100–101.

  67. ^

    Mossolov, Courtroom, p. 152

  68. ^

    “Melnik-Botkina, Vospominaniya, p. 125

  69. ^

    M. Nelipa (2015)
    Alexei, pp. 85-86.

  70. ^

    1000. Nelipa (2015)
    Alexei,
    p. 93.

  71. ^

    “Vorres, Terminal Grand Duchess, p. 143

  72. ^


    Gilliard, Pierre (1921).
    Thirteen Years at the Russian Court. Translated by F. Appleby Holt (third ed.). London: Hutchinson & Co. pp. 177–178. Retrieved
    vii June
    2015
    .



  73. ^

    Pares, p. 138.

  74. ^

    Fuhrmann, p. 103.

  75. ^


    “The Life and Tragedy of Alexandra – Affiliate XV – A Mother’due south Agony – Rasputin”.
    www.alexanderpalace.org.



  76. ^

    Moe, p. 152.

  77. ^

    Rasputin, p. 33.
  78. ^


    a




    b



    Bernard Pares (6 January 1927) “Rasputin and the Empress: Authors of the Russian Plummet”,
    Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 15 July 2014.

  79. ^

    Rappaport, p. 117.

  80. ^

    Moynahan, p. 165.

  81. ^

    Yard. Shelley (1925),
    The Speckled Domes. Episodes of an Englishman’s life in Russian federation, p. lx.

  82. ^

    Edvard Radzinsky,
    The Rasputin File, Doubleday, 2000, p. 77

  83. ^


    “Registrant WHOIS contact information verification | Namecheap.com”.
    www.litmir.cyberspace. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.



  84. ^


    d’Encausse, Hélène Carrère (ane April 2014).
    Nicolas Ii, la transition interrompue: Une biographie politique. Fayard. ISBN9782213649764
    – via Google Books.



  85. ^


    Jestice, Phyllis One thousand. (13 June 2004).
    Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN9781576073551
    – via Google Books.



  86. ^


    Diarmuid Jeffreys (2004).

    Aspirin: The Remarkable Story of a Wonder Drug
    . Bloomsbury Publishing, p. 121. ISBN9781582343860.



  87. ^


    Jeffreys, Diarmuid (15 December 2010).
    Aspirin: The Extraordinary Story of a Wonder Drug. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN9781408820421
    – via Google Books.



  88. ^


    Lichterman, B. L. (2004). “Aspirin: The Story of a Wonder Drug”.
    BMJ.
    329
    (7479): 1408. doi:x.1136/bmj.329.7479.1408. PMC535471.



  89. ^

    HEROIN® and ASPIRIN® The Connexion! & The Collection! – Part Ii By Cecil Munsey

  90. ^

    Robert K. Massie (1967)
    Nicholas and Alexandra,
    p. 15?

  91. ^

    Massie, p. 296

  92. ^

    Biography of Pantuhin on side pravoverie.ru Archived 28 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
    (in Russian)

  93. ^


    “NATIONAL ORGANISATION OF RUSSIAN SCOUTS-Who Are We ?”. National Organisation of Russian Scouts (N.O.R.Due south.). Retrieved
    16 April
    2008
    .



  94. ^

    Massie, p. 307.

  95. ^

    Vyrubova, Memories of the Russian Court, p 338, letter of the alphabet of Empress Alexandra to Ania Vyrubova

  96. ^

    Nicholas II 1918 Diary xxx March 31 (old style)

  97. ^

    The Last Diary of Tsaritsa Alexandra, Yale University Printing 1997

  98. ^

    King and Wilson, pp. 83–84

  99. ^

    Rex and Wilson, pp. 309–310

  100. ^


    Coble, Michael D.; Loreille, Odile M.; Wadhams, Mark J.; Edson, Suni M.; Maynard, Kerry; Meyer, Carna Eastward.; Niederstätter, Harald; Berger, Cordula; Berger, Burkhard; Falsetti, Anthony B.; Gill, Peter; Parson, Walther; Finelli, Louis North. (2009). “Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Ii Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis”.
    PLOS ONE.
    4
    (3): e4838. Bibcode:2009PLoSO…four.4838C. doi:10.1371/periodical.pone.0004838. PMC2652717. PMID 19277206.



  101. ^


    Eckel, Mike (2008). “Dna confirms IDs of arbiter’s children”.
    yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved
    30 April
    2008
    .



  102. ^

    Details on the testing of the Imperial remains are contained in Rogaev, E.I., Grigorenko, A.P., Moliaka, I.Thousand., Faskhutdinova, G., Goltsov,A., Lahti, A., Hildebrandt, C., Kittler, Eastward.L.W. and Morozova, I., “Genomic identification in historical example of Nicholas 2 Royal family.”,
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (2009). The mitochondrial DNA of Alexandra, Alexei, and Maria are identical and of haplogroup H1. The mitochondrial DNA of Nicholas was haplogroup T2. Their sequences are published at GenBank equally FJ656214, FJ656215, FJ656216, and FJ656217.

  103. ^


    “DNA proves Bolsheviks killed all of Russian czar’southward children”.
    www.cnn.com.



  104. ^


    “Nicholas II And Family Canonized For ‘Passion’“.
    The New York Times. 15 August 2000.



  105. ^


    Luhn, Alec (eleven September 2015). “Russia agrees to further testing over ‘remains of Romanov children’“.
    The Guardian.



  106. ^

    Kerensky, A. F. (1927),
    The Catastrophe, Chapter 1, Marxists Internet Archive

  107. ^

    Massie,
    Nicholas and Alexandra, 1967

  108. ^


    Barr, William (1975). “Severnaya Zemlya: the last major discovery”.
    Geographical Journal.
    141
    (1): 59–71. doi:x.2307/1796946. JSTOR 1796946.



  109. ^

    Russian Purple Ground forces – Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich (In Russian)

  110. ^


    M. & B. Wattel (2009).
    Les M’Croix de la Légion d’honneur de 1805 à nos jours. Titulaires français et étrangers. Paris: Archives & Civilization. p. 520. ISBN978-2-35077-135-nine.



  111. ^



    Sveriges statskalender
    (in Swedish), 1915, p. 671, retrieved
    6 Jan
    2018

    – via runeberg.org



  112. ^


    Italy. Ministero dell’interno (1920).
    Calendario generale del regno d’Italy. p. 58.



  113. ^


    “Grand Duchess Kseniia Aleksandrovna Papers”. Hoover Institution Library & Athenaeum. Retrieved
    12 Oct
    2021
    .


  114. ^


    a




    b



    Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia at the
    Encyclopædia Britannica
  115. ^


    a




    b




    Gelardi, Julia P. (1 April 2007).
    Born to Rule: Five Reigning Consorts, Granddaughters of Queen Victoria. St. Martin’s Press. p. x. ISBN9781429904551
    . Retrieved
    15 July
    2018
    .


  116. ^


    a




    b



    Alexander III, Emperor of Russia at the
    Encyclopædia Britannica
  117. ^


    a




    b




    “Christian Ix”. The Danish Monarchy. Archived from the original on 3 Apr 2005. Retrieved
    xiv July
    2018
    .


  118. ^


    a




    b




    Willis, Daniel A. (2002).
    The Descendants of King George I of United kingdom. Clearfield Company. p. 717. ISBN978-0-8063-5172-eight.


  119. ^


    a




    b




    Louda, Jiří; Maclagan, Michael (1999).
    Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Purple Families of Europe. London: Little, Brown. p. 34. ISBN978-1-85605-469-0.


https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/periodical.pone.0004838
      

Further reading

[edit]

  • Greg Male monarch and Penny Wilson,
    The Fate of the Romanovs,
    John Wiley and Sons, 2003, ISBN 0-471-20768-3
  • Robert K. Massie, Nicholas and Alexandra, 1967.
  • Robert K. Massie,
    The Romanovs: The Final Affiliate, Random House, 1995, ISBN 0-394-58048-6
  • Andrei Maylunas and Sergei Mironenko,
    A Lifelong Passion: Nicholas and Alexandra: Their Own Story,
    Doubleday, 1997, ISBN 0-385-48673-i
  • Edvard Radzinsky,
    The Rasputin File,
    Doubleday, 2000, ISBN 0-385-48909-nine
  • Demetrios Serfes,
    A Phenomenon Through the Prayers of Tsar Nicholas Two and Tsarevich Alexis
  • Proverb Shevchenko,
    The Glorification of the Royal Family,
    a 2000 commodity in the
    Nezavisimaya Gazeta
  • Charlotte Zeepvat, The Photographic camera and the Tsars: A Romanov Family unit Album, Sutton Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-7509-3049-vii

External links

[edit]


  • Media related to Alexei Nikolaievich of Russia at Wikimedia Commons
  • The Romanov Memorial
  • FrozenTears.org A media library of the last Imperial Family.
  • The Search Foundation, an organization dedicated to searching for the remains of the ii “missing” Romanov children.
  • RoyalRussia.org: Tsarevich Alexis Heir to the Throne.

Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia

House of Romanov


Built-in:
thirty July 1904

Died:
17 July 1918

Titles in pretence
Vacant

Championship last held past

Nicholas II


— TITULAR —




Emperor of Russia



fifteen March 19171
– 17 July 1918
Reason for succession failure:

Empire abolished in 1917
Succeeded by

Nikolai Nikolaevich



Alexei Romanov Suffered From Hemophilia a Condition That

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexei_Nikolaevich,_Tsarevich_of_Russia