The Ceramic Figures Above Were Created During the Neolithic Period

The Ceramic Figures Above Were Created During the Neolithic Period.

Archaeological catamenia, last function of the Stone Age


The Neolithic is characterized by fixed human settlements. Reconstruction of Pre-Pottery Neolithic B housing in Aşıklı Höyük, modern Turkey.

Period Final catamenia of Stone Historic period
Dates 10,000–4,500 BC (two,200 BC in Western Europe)
Preceded by Mesolithic, Epipalaeolithic
Followed by Chalcolithic

catamenia, or
New Stone Age, is an Old Globe archaeological period and the concluding partition of the Stone Historic period. It saw the Neolithic Revolution, a broad-ranging prepare of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the earth. This “Neolithic package” included the introduction of farming, domestication of animals, and alter from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to one of settlement.

It began about 12,000 years agone when farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, and later on in other parts of the world. The Neolithic lasted in the Well-nigh Eastward until the transitional flow of the Chalcolithic (Copper Age) from almost 6,500 years ago (4500 BC), marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Statuary Age and Atomic number 26 Age.

In other places the Neolithic followed the Mesolithic (Middle Rock Age) and then lasted until later. In Aboriginal Arab republic of egypt, the Neolithic lasted until the Protodynastic menstruum,
3150 BC.[1]
In China it lasted until circa 2000 BC with the rise of the pre-Shang Erlitou culture,[4]
and in Scandinavia the Neolithic lasted until about 2000 BC. Some other parts of the world (including Oceania and some regions of the Americas) remained broadly comparable to the Neolithic phase of development until get-go contact.[5]

The term
is modern, based on Greek



‘new’ and



‘stone’, literally ‘New Stone Age’. The term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 equally a refinement of the three-age arrangement.[8]


Estimate centers of origin of agriculture in the Neolithic revolution and its spread in prehistory: the Fertile Crescent (11,000 BP), the Yangtze and Yellowish River basins (9,000 BP) and the New Guinea Highlands (nine,000–six,000 BP), Central Mexico (5,000–iv,000 BP), Northern South America (5,000–4,000 BP), sub-Saharan Africa (5,000–4,000 BP, exact location unknown), eastern North America (4,000–three,000 BP).[9]

Post-obit the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around x,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian civilisation, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming. The Natufian period or “proto-Neolithic” lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, and is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPNA) of ten,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, and a sedentary way of life had begun amidst them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas (about ten,000 BC) are thought to have forced people to develop farming.

By 10,200–8,800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Pocket-sized, Northward Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around x,000 BC.

Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat, millet and spelt, and the keeping of dogs. By about 8000 BC, information technology included domesticated sheep and goats, cattle and pigs.

Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the aforementioned order: the earliest farming societies in the Nearly East did not use pottery. In other parts of the world, such as Africa, Southward Asia and Southeast Asia, contained domestication events led to their ain regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose completely independently of those in Europe and Southwest asia. Early Japanese societies and other Due east Asian cultures used pottery
developing agronomics.[x]

Periods by region

Southwest Asia

An assortment of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools.

In the Middle Eastward, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC.[12]
Early development occurred in the Levant (east.g. Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) and from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are also attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC.[
citation needed

Anatolian Neolithic farmers derived a pregnant portion of their ancestry from the Anatolian hunter-gatherers (AHG), suggesting that agriculture was adopted in site past these hunter-gatherers and not spread by demic diffusion into the region.[xiii]

Pre-Pottery Neolithic A

The Neolithic 1 (PPNA) menstruum began roughly around 10,000 BC in the Levant.[12]
A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded equally the beginning of the period. This site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, and may exist the oldest known homo-fabricated identify of worship.[17]
At least vii stone circles, covering 25 acres (10 ha), incorporate limestone pillars carved with animals, insects, and birds. Stone tools were used by maybe as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC take been institute in Tell es-Sultan (ancient Jericho), Israel (notably Own Mallaha, Nahal Oren, and Kfar HaHoresh), Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, and Byblos, Lebanon. The kickoff of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic periods to some caste.[
citation needed

The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and mayhap early on seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated (animal husbandry and selective breeding).[
citation needed

In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, and therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings. This evidence suggests that figs were the offset cultivated crop and marker the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries earlier the offset cultivation of grains.[18]

Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. All the same, these houses were for the first fourth dimension fabricated of mudbrick. The settlement had a surrounding stone wall and perhaps a stone tower (as in Jericho). The wall served equally protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned. Some of the enclosures too suggest grain and meat storage.[19]

Pre-Pottery Neolithic B

The Neolithic ii (PPNB) began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant (Jericho, West Bank).[12]
As with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the aforementioned laboratories noted higher up. This arrangement of terminology, withal, is non user-friendly for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the heart Anatolia bowl.[
commendation needed

A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in the outskirts of Amman, Jordan. Considered to be one of the largest prehistoric settlements in the Near Due east, called ‘Own Ghazal, it was continuously inhabited from approximately 7250 BC to approximately 5000 BC.[20]

Settlements take rectangular mud-brick houses where the family lived together in single or multiple rooms. Burying findings suggest an ancestor cult where people preserved skulls of the dead, which were plastered with mud to make facial features. The rest of the corpse could have been left outside the settlement to decay until merely the bones were left, then the bones were buried within the settlement underneath the floor or betwixt houses.[
citation needed

Pre-Pottery Neolithic C

Work at the site of ‘Ain Ghazal in Jordan has indicated a later Pre-Pottery Neolithic C period. Juris Zarins has proposed that a Circum Arabian Nomadic Pastoral Circuitous developed in the flow from the climatic crunch of 6200 BC, partly as a issue of an increasing emphasis in PPNB cultures upon domesticated animals, and a fusion with Harifian hunter gatherers in the Southern Levant, with affiliate connections with the cultures of Fayyum and the Eastern Desert of Arab republic of egypt. Cultures practicing this lifestyle spread downwardly the Cherry Ocean shoreline and moved east from Syria into southern Republic of iraq.[21]

Late Neolithic

The Late Neolithic began around half-dozen,400 BC in the Fertile Crescent.[12]
By then distinctive cultures emerged, with pottery like the Halafian (Turkey, Syria, Northern Mesopotamia) and Ubaid (Southern Mesopotamia). This period has been further divided into
(Pottery Neolithic A) and
(Pottery Neolithic B) at some sites.[22]

The Chalcolithic (Stone-Bronze) catamenia began about 4500 BC, then the Bronze Age began about 3500 BC, replacing the Neolithic cultures.[
citation needed

Fertile Crescent

Effectually 10,000 BC the starting time fully developed Neolithic cultures belonging to the phase Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) appeared in the Fertile Crescent.[12]
Around 10,700–9400 BC a settlement was established in Tell Qaramel, 10 miles (xvi km) north of Aleppo. The settlement included ii temples dating to 9650 BC.[23]
Around 9000 BC during the PPNA, one of the world’s start towns, Jericho, appeared in the Levant. It was surrounded past a stone wall, may have contained a population of upward to 2,000–three,000 people, and contained a massive rock tower.[24]
Around 6400 BC the Halaf culture appeared in Syria and Northern Mesopotamia.

In 1981, a team of researchers from the Maison de 50’Orient et de la Méditerranée, including Jacques Cauvin and Oliver Aurenche, divided Virtually Eastward Neolithic chronology into ten periods (0 to ix) based on social, economic and cultural characteristics.[25]
In 2002, Danielle Stordeur and Frédéric Abbès advanced this system with a division into 5 periods.

  1. Natufian between 12,000 and 10,200 BC,
  2. Khiamian betwixt ten,200 and 8800 BC, PPNA: Sultanian (Jericho), Mureybetian,
  3. Early PPNB (PPNB ancien) between 8800 and 7600 BC, middle PPNB (PPNB moyen) between 7600 and 6900 BC,
  4. Late PPNB (PPNB récent) between 7500 and 7000 BC,
  5. A PPNB (sometimes called PPNC) transitional stage (PPNB final) in which Halaf and night faced glassy ware brainstorm to emerge betwixt 6900 and 6400 BC.[26]

They as well advanced the idea of a transitional stage between the PPNA and PPNB between 8800 and 8600 BC at sites like Jerf el Ahmar and Tell Aswad.[27]

Southern Mesopotamia

Alluvial plains (Sumer/Elam). Depression rainfall makes irrigation systems necessary. Ubaid culture from 6,900 BC.[
commendation needed

North Africa

Algerian cave paintings depicting hunting scenes

Domestication of sheep and goats reached Egypt from the Almost East maybe as early on as 6000 BC.[28]
Graeme Barker states “The start indisputable testify for domestic plants and animals in the Nile valley is not until the early on fifth millennium BC in northern Arab republic of egypt and a thousand years subsequently farther south, in both cases as part of strategies that still relied heavily on fishing, hunting, and the gathering of wild plants” and suggests that these subsistence changes were not due to farmers migrating from the About East but was an indigenous development, with cereals either indigenous or obtained through substitution.[31]
Other scholars argue that the primary stimulus for agriculture and domesticated animals (as well every bit mud-brick architecture and other Neolithic cultural features) in Arab republic of egypt was from the Middle E.[32]

Sub-Saharan Africa

Pastoral Neolithic
refers to a menstruation in Africa’s prehistory marking the beginning of food production on the continent post-obit the Afterward Stone Age. In dissimilarity to the Neolithic in other parts of the world, which saw the development of farming societies, the first form of African food production was mobile pastoralism,[35]
or ways of life centered on the herding and management of livestock. The term “Pastoral Neolithic” is used most frequently past archaeologists to describe early on pastoralist periods in the Sahara,[37]
besides every bit in eastern Africa.[38]

Savanna Pastoral Neolithic
or SPN (formerly known as the
Stone Bowl Civilisation) is a drove of ancient societies that appeared in the Rift Valley of Eastward Africa and surrounding areas during a time menstruation known equally the Pastoral Neolithic. They were South Cushitic speaking pastoralists, who tended to coffin their dead in cairns whilst their toolkit was characterized by stone bowls, pestles, grindstones and earthenware pots.[39]
Through archaeology, historical linguistics and archaeogenetics, they conventionally have been identified with the area’s first Afroasiatic-speaking settlers. Archaeological dating of livestock bones and burial cairns has besides established the cultural complex as the primeval center of pastoralism and stone construction in the region.[40]


Map showing distribution of some of the primary civilization complexes in Neolithic Europe,
3500 BC

Skara Brae, Scotland. Bear witness of dwelling house furnishings (shelves)

In southeast Europe agrarian societies showtime appeared in the 7th millennium BC, attested past ane of the earliest farming sites of Europe, discovered in Vashtëmi, southeastern Albania and dating back to 6500 BC.[41]
In most of Western Europe in followed over the next two g years, but in some parts of Northwest Europe information technology is much after, lasting just under 3,000 years from c. 4500 BC–1700 BC. Recent advances in archaeogenetics accept confirmed that the spread of agriculture from the Middle East to Europe was strongly correlated with the migration of early farmers from Anatolia most 9,000 years ago, and was non just a cultural exchange.[43]

Anthropomorphic figurines accept been found in the Balkans from 6000 BC,[45]
and in Central Europe by around 5800 BC (La Hoguette). Among the earliest cultural complexes of this area are the Sesklo culture in Thessaly, which later on expanded in the Balkans giving ascent to Starčevo-Körös (Cris), Linearbandkeramik, and Vinča. Through a combination of cultural diffusion and migration of peoples, the Neolithic traditions spread w and northwards to reach northwestern Europe past effectually 4500 BC. The Vinča culture may have created the earliest system of writing, the Vinča signs, though archaeologist Shan Winn believes they most likely represented pictograms and ideograms rather than a truly developed form of writing.[46]

The Cucuteni-Trypillian civilisation built enormous settlements in Romania, Moldova and Ukraine from 5300 to 2300 BC. The megalithic temple complexes of Ġgantija on the Mediterranean island of Gozo (in the Maltese archipelago) and of Mnajdra (Malta) are notable for their gigantic Neolithic structures, the oldest of which date back to effectually 3600 BC. The Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni, Paola, Malta, is a subterranean structure excavated around 2500 BC; originally a sanctuary, information technology became a necropolis, the but prehistoric hugger-mugger temple in the world, and shows a degree of artistry in rock sculpture unique in prehistory to the Maltese islands. After 2500 BC, these islands were depopulated for several decades until the inflow of a new influx of Statuary Age immigrants, a culture that cremated its dead and introduced smaller megalithic structures called dolmens to Malta.[47]
In nearly cases at that place are pocket-size chambers here, with the embrace made of a large slab placed on upright stones. They are claimed to belong to a population unlike from that which congenital the previous megalithic temples. It is presumed the population arrived from Sicily because of the similarity of Maltese dolmens to some pocket-sized constructions plant there.[48]

With some exceptions, population levels rose rapidly at the start of the Neolithic until they reached the carrying chapters.[49]
This was followed past a population crash of “enormous magnitude” after 5000 BC, with levels remaining depression during the next 1,500 years.[49]
Populations began to rise afterwards 3500 BCE, with further dips and rises occurring between 3000 and 2500 BC just varying in engagement between regions.[49]
Around this fourth dimension is the Neolithic pass up, when populations collapsed across most of Europe, peradventure caused by climatic conditions, plague, or mass migration.[50]

South and Eastward Asia

Settled life, encompassing the transition from foraging to farming and pastoralism, began in S Asia in the region of Balochistan, Pakistan, around vii,000 BC.[51]
At the site of Mehrgarh, Balochistan, presence can be documented of the domestication of wheat and barley, rapidly followed by that of goats, sheep, and cattle.[54]
In April 2006, it was appear in the scientific journal
that the oldest (and showtime
early on Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of teeth
in vivo
(using bow drills and flint tips) was constitute in Mehrgarh.[55]

In South India, the Neolithic began by 6500 BC and lasted until effectually 1400 BC when the Megalithic transition period began. South Indian Neolithic is characterized by Ash mounds[
clarification needed

from 2500 BC in Karnataka region, expanded later on to Tamil Nadu.[56]

Neolithic artefacts from China

In Eastern asia, the primeval sites include the Nanzhuangtou civilization around 9500–9000 BC,[57]
Pengtoushan culture around 7500–6100 BC, and Peiligang culture effectually 7000–5000 BC. The prehistoric Beifudi site nearly Yixian in Hebei Province, Cathay, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, Neolithic cultures e of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than than 1,200 square yards (1,000 mii; 0.10 ha), and the collection of Neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.[58]
Between 3000 and 1900 BC, the Longshan culture existed in the middle and lower Yellowish River valley areas of northern China. Towards the end of the 3rd millennium BC, the population decreased sharply in most of the region and many of the larger centres were abased, peradventure due to environmental change linked to the terminate of the Holocene Climatic Optimum.[59]

The ‘Neolithic’ (defined in this paragraph as using polished rock implements) remains a living tradition in minor and extremely remote and inaccessible pockets of West Papua (Indonesian New Guinea). Polished stone adze and axes are used in the nowadays solar day (as of 2008[update]) in areas where the availability of metal implements is limited. This is probable to cease altogether in the next few years equally the older generation dice off and steel blades and chainsaws prevail.[
commendation needed

In 2012, news was released about a new farming site discovered in Munam-ri, Goseong, Gangwon Province, South Korea, which may exist the earliest farmland known to date in eastern asia.[threescore]
“No remains of an agronomical field from the Neolithic period take been plant in any East Asian country before, the institute said, adding that the discovery reveals that the history of agricultural cultivation at to the lowest degree began during the period on the Korean Peninsula”. The subcontract was dated between 3600 and 3000 BC. Pottery, stone projectile points, and possible houses were also found. “In 2002, researchers discovered prehistoric earthenware, jade earrings, among other items in the area”. The research team will perform accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating to recall a more than precise date for the site.[61]

The Americas

In Mesoamerica, a similar set of events (i.east., crop domestication and sedentary lifestyles) occurred by around 4500 BC, but possibly as early as eleven,000–10,000 BC. These cultures are unremarkably not referred to every bit belonging to the Neolithic; in America dissimilar terms are used such as Determinative stage instead of mid-late Neolithic, Archaic Era instead of Early Neolithic, and Paleo-Indian for the preceding menstruum.[62]

The Formative stage is equivalent to the Neolithic Revolution period in Europe, Asia, and Africa. In the southwestern United States it occurred from 500 to 1200 AD when there was a dramatic increase in population and development of large villages supported by agronomics based on dryland farming of maize, and later, beans, squash, and domesticated turkeys. During this period the bow and pointer and ceramic pottery were also introduced.[63]
In afterwards periods cities of considerable size developed, and some metallurgy by 700 BC.[64]


Australia, in contrast to New Republic of guinea, has generally been held non to have had a Neolithic menses, with a hunter-gatherer lifestyle standing until the arrival of Europeans. This view tin can be challenged in terms of the definition of agriculture, but “Neolithic” remains a rarely used and non very useful concept in discussing Australian prehistory.[65]

Cultural characteristics

Anthropomorphic Neolithic ceramic figurine

During almost of the Neolithic age of Eurasia, people lived in small-scale tribes composed of multiple bands or lineages.[66]
At that place is piddling scientific show of developed social stratification in most Neolithic societies; social stratification is more associated with the later Statuary Historic period.[67]
Although some late Eurasian Neolithic societies formed complex stratified chiefdoms or even states, by and large states evolved in Eurasia only with the rise of metallurgy, and most Neolithic societies on the whole were relatively simple and egalitarian.[66]
Across Eurasia, however, states were formed during the local Neolithic in 3 areas, namely in the Preceramic Andes with the Norte Chico Civilisation,[68]
Formative Mesoamerica and Ancient Hawaiʻi.[seventy]
However, most Neolithic societies were noticeably more hierarchical than the Upper Paleolithic cultures that preceded them and hunter-gatherer cultures in general.[71]

Dirt homo figurine (Fertility goddess) Tappeh Sarab, Kermanshah c.7000-6100 BC, National Museum of Islamic republic of iran

The domestication of big animals (c. 8000 BC) resulted in a dramatic increase in social inequality in most of the areas where it occurred; New Guinea being a notable exception.[73]
Possession of livestock allowed competition between households and resulted in inherited inequalities of wealth. Neolithic pastoralists who controlled large herds gradually acquired more than livestock, and this made economic inequalities more pronounced.[74]
However, show of social inequality is nonetheless disputed, every bit settlements such equally Catal Huyuk reveal a striking lack of difference in the size of homes and burial sites, suggesting a more than egalitarian order with no show of the concept of capital, although some homes do appear slightly larger or more elaborately decorated than others.

Families and households were still largely independent economically, and the household was probably the eye of life.[75]
However, excavations in Cardinal Europe have revealed that early on Neolithic Linear Ceramic cultures (“Linearbandkeramik“) were building large arrangements of round ditches between 4800 and 4600 BC. These structures (and their after counterparts such as causewayed enclosures, burial mounds, and henge) required considerable fourth dimension and labour to construct, which suggests that some influential individuals were able to organise and direct homo labour – though non-hierarchical and voluntary work remain possibilities.

There is a big body of evidence for fortified settlements at
sites along the Rhine, as at to the lowest degree some villages were fortified for some fourth dimension with a palisade and an outer ditch.[77]
Settlements with palisades and weapon-traumatized bones, such as those constitute at the Talheim Death Pit, have been discovered and demonstrate that “…systematic violence between groups” and warfare was probably much more than common during the Neolithic than in the preceding Paleolithic menses.[72]
This supplanted an earlier view of the Linear Pottery Culture every bit living a “peaceful, unfortified lifestyle”.[79]

Command of labour and inter-group conflict is characteristic of tribal groups with social rank that are headed by a charismatic individual – either a ‘big man’ or a proto-primary – functioning every bit a lineage-grouping caput. Whether a non-hierarchical system of system existed is debatable, and in that location is no testify that explicitly suggests that Neolithic societies functioned under whatever dominating class or individual, as was the case in the chiefdoms of the European Early on Bronze Age.[80]
Possible exceptions to this include Iraq during the Ubaid flow and England beginning in the Early Neolithic (4100-3000 BC).[81]
Theories to explain the credible implied egalitarianism of Neolithic (and Paleolithic) societies have arisen, notably the Marxist concept of primitive communism.

Shelter and sedentism

The shelter of the early people inverse dramatically from the Upper Paleolithic to the Neolithic era. In the Paleolithic, people did not normally live in permanent constructions. In the Neolithic, mud brick houses started appearing that were coated with plaster.[83]
The growth of agronomics fabricated permanent houses possible. Doorways were made on the roof, with ladders positioned both on the inside and outside of the houses.[83]
The roof was supported past beams from the within. The rough footing was covered past platforms, mats, and skins on which residents slept.[84]
Stilt-firm settlements were common in the Alpine and Pianura Padana (Terramare) region.[85]
Remains take been constitute in the Ljubljana Marsh in Slovenia and at the Mondsee and Attersee lakes in Upper Austria, for case.


Food and cooking items retrieved at a European Neolithic site: millstones, charred breadstuff, grains and pocket-sized apples, a clay cooking pot, and containers made of antlers and wood

A meaning and far-reaching shift in human being subsistence and lifestyle was to exist brought well-nigh in areas where crop farming and cultivation were first developed: the previous reliance on an essentially nomadic hunter-gatherer subsistence technique or pastoral transhumance was at first supplemented, and so increasingly replaced by, a reliance upon the foods produced from cultivated lands. These developments are as well believed to have greatly encouraged the growth of settlements, since it may be supposed that the increased need to spend more time and labor in tending crop fields required more localized dwellings. This trend would continue into the Bronze Age, eventually giving rise to permanently settled farming towns, and later cities and states whose larger populations could exist sustained by the increased productivity from cultivated lands.

The profound differences in man interactions and subsistence methods associated with the onset of early on agricultural practices in the Neolithic have been called the
Neolithic Revolution, a term coined in the 1920s by the Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe.

One potential benefit of the evolution and increasing sophistication of farming technology was the possibility of producing surplus crop yields, in other words, food supplies in excess of the immediate needs of the community. Surpluses could be stored for later on use, or maybe traded for other necessities or luxuries. Agricultural life afforded securities that nomadic life could not, and sedentary farming populations grew faster than nomadic.

Yet, early on farmers were also adversely affected in times of famine, such equally may exist caused by drought or pests. In instances where agriculture had become the predominant way of life, the sensitivity to these shortages could be peculiarly astute, affecting agrarian populations to an extent that otherwise may not accept been routinely experienced past prior hunter-gatherer communities.[74]
Withal, agrarian communities by and large proved successful, and their growth and the expansion of territory under tillage continued.

Some other significant alter undergone by many of these newly agrarian communities was i of diet. Pre-agrarian diets varied by region, flavour, available local institute and fauna resources and degree of pastoralism and hunting. Post-agrarian diet was restricted to a limited parcel of successfully cultivated cereal grains, plants and to a variable extent domesticated animals and animal products. Supplementation of diet past hunting and gathering was to variable degrees precluded past the increase in population higher up the carrying capacity of the land and a high sedentary local population concentration. In some cultures, there would have been a significant shift toward increased starch and plant poly peptide. The relative nutritional benefits and drawbacks of these dietary changes and their overall impact on early societal development are still debated.

In addition, increased population density, decreased population mobility, increased continuous proximity to domesticated animals, and continuous occupation of comparatively population-dense sites would have altered sanitation needs and patterns of illness.

Lithic technology

The identifying characteristic of Neolithic engineering science is the utilize of polished or basis stone tools, in contrast to the flaked stone tools used during the Paleolithic era.

Neolithic people were skilled farmers, manufacturing a range of tools necessary for the tending, harvesting and processing of crops (such equally sickle blades and grinding stones) and food production (due east.g. pottery, os implements). They were also skilled manufacturers of a range of other types of stone tools and ornaments, including projectile points, beads, and statuettes. But what allowed forest clearance on a large scale was the polished stone axe above all other tools. Together with the adze, fashioning forest for shelter, structures and canoes for example, this enabled them to exploit their newly won farmland.

Neolithic peoples in the Levant, Anatolia, Syria, northern Mesopotamia and Cardinal Asia were also accomplished builders, utilizing mud-brick to construct houses and villages. At Çatalhöyük, houses were plastered and painted with elaborate scenes of humans and animals. In Europe, long houses built from wattle and daub were synthetic. Elaborate tombs were built for the dead. These tombs are particularly numerous in Ireland, where there are many thousand nonetheless in existence. Neolithic people in the British Isles built long barrows and chamber tombs for their dead and causewayed camps, henges, flint mines and cursus monuments. It was as well of import to figure out ways of preserving food for hereafter months, such as fashioning relatively airtight containers, and using substances similar salt as preservatives.

The peoples of the Americas and the Pacific mostly retained the Neolithic level of tool technology until the fourth dimension of European contact. Exceptions include copper hatchets and spearheads in the Great Lakes region.


Well-nigh clothing appears to accept been made of animal skins, as indicated by finds of large numbers of os and antler pins that are ideal for fastening leather. Wool textile and linen might have go available during the later Neolithic,[86]
as suggested by finds of perforated stones that (depending on size) may have served every bit spindle whorls or loom weights.[88]

List of early settlements

Reconstruction of a Cucuteni-Trypillian hut, in the Tripillian Museum, Ukraine

Neolithic human settlements include:

name location early date (BC) late date (BC) comments
Tell Qaramel Syria 10,700[91] 9400
Franchthi Cavern Greece 10,000 reoccupied betwixt 7500 and 6000 BC
Göbekli Tepe Turkey 9600 8000
Nanzhuangtou Hebei, China 9500 9000
Byblos Lebanese republic 8800 7000[92]
Jericho (Tell es-Sultan) Westward Bank 9500 arising from the earlier Epipaleolithic Natufian civilization
Pulli settlement Estonia 8500 5000 oldest known settlement of Kunda civilisation
Aşıklı Höyük Central Anatolia, Turkey, an Aceramic Neolithic menstruum settlement 8200 7400 correlating with the Eastward/MPPNB in the Levant
Nevali Cori Turkey 8000
Bhirrana India 7600 7200 Hakra ware
Pengtoushan civilization Prc 7500 6100 rice residues were carbon-xiv dated to 8200–7800 BC
Çatalhöyük Turkey 7500 5700
Mentesh Tepe and Kamiltepe Azerbaijan 7000 3000[93]
‘Ain Ghazal Jordan 7250 5000
Chogha Bonut Iran 7200
Jhusi India 7100
Motza Israel 7000
Ganj Dareh Iran 7000
Lahuradewa India 7000
presence of rice tillage, ceramics etc.
Jiahu China 7000 5800
Knossos Crete 7000
Khirokitia Cyprus 7000 4000
Mehrgarh Islamic republic of pakistan 7000 5500 aceramic but elaborate culture including mud brick, houses, agriculture etc.
Sesklo Hellenic republic 6850 with a 660-year margin of error
Horton Plains Sri Lanka 6700 tillage of oats and barley as early equally 11,000 BC
Porodin North Macedonia 6500[95]
Padah-Lin Caves Burma 6000
Petnica Serbia 6000
Stara Zagora Bulgaria 5500
Cucuteni-Trypillian culture Ukraine, Moldova and Romania 5500 2750
Tell Zeidan northern Syria 5500 4000
Tabon Cave Complex Quezon, Palawan, Philippines 5000 2000[96]
Hemudu culture, large-calibration rice plantation China 5000 4500
The Megalithic Temples of Republic of malta Malta 3600
Knap of Howar and Skara Brae Orkney, Scotland 3500 3100
Brú na Bóinne Ireland 3500
Lough Gur Ireland 3000
Shengavit Settlement Armenia 3000 2200
Norte Chico civilisation, 30 aceramic Neolithic period settlements northern coastal Peru 3000 1700
Tichit Neolithic hamlet on the Tagant Plateau central southern Mauritania 2000 500
Oaxaca, state Southwestern Mexico 2000 by 2000 BC Neolithic sedentary villages had been established in the Central Valleys region of this state.
Lajia China 2000
Mumun pottery period Korean Peninsula 1800 1500
Neolithic revolution Japan 500 300

The earth’due south oldest known engineered roadway, the Post Track in England, dates from 3838 BC and the globe’s oldest freestanding structure is the Neolithic temple of Ġgantija in Gozo, Malta.

List of cultures and sites

Note: Dates are very approximate, and are only given for a rough guess; consult each culture for specific time periods.

Early Neolithic

Periodization: The Levant: 9500–8000 BC; Europe: 5000–4000 BC; Elsewhere: varies greatly, depending on region.

  • Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (Levant, 9500–8000 BC)
  • Nanzhuangtou (Cathay, 8500 BC)
  • Franchthi Cavern (Greece, 7000 BC)
  • Cishan culture (China, 6500–5000 BC)
  • Sesclo village (Greece, c. 6300 BC)
  • Starcevo-Criş culture (Starčevo-Körös-Criş culture) (Balkans, 5800–4500 BC)
  • Katundas Cave (Albania, 6th millennium BC)
  • Dudeşti civilisation (Romania, 6th millennium BC)
  • Beixin civilisation (Communist china, 5300–4100 BC)
  • Tamil Nadu culture (Bharat, 3000–2800 BC)[98]
  • Mentesh Tepe and Kamiltepe (Republic of azerbaijan, 7000–3000 BC)[93]

Heart Neolithic

Periodization: The Levant: 8000–6000 BC; Europe: 4000–3500 BC; Elsewhere: varies profoundly, depending on region.

  • Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (Levant, 7600–6000 BC)
  • Baodun civilisation
    • Jinsha settlement and Sanxingdui mound.
  • Çatalhöyük
  • Cardium pottery culture
  • Comb Ceramic civilization
  • Corded Ware culture
  • Cortaillod culture
  • Cucuteni-Trypillian culture
  • Dadiwan culture
  • Dawenkou civilization
  • Daxi civilisation
    • Chengtoushan settlement
  • Dapenkeng culture (Taiwan, 4000–3000 BC)
  • Grooved ware people
    • Skara Brae, et al.
  • Erlitou culture
    • Xia Dynasty
  • Ertebølle civilization
  • Hembury culture
  • Hemudu culture
  • Hongshan civilisation
  • Houli culture
  • Horgen culture
  • Kura–Araxes civilization
  • Liangzhu civilization
  • Linear Pottery culture
    • Goseck circle, Circular ditches, et al.
  • Longshan culture
  • Majiabang culture
  • Majiayao culture
  • Peiligang civilisation
  • Pengtoushan culture
  • Pfyn culture
  • Precucuteni culture
  • Qujialing culture
  • Shijiahe culture
  • Trypillian culture
  • Vinča culture
  • Lengyel culture (Central Europe, 5000–3400 BC)
  • Varna culture (Due south/Eastern Europe 4400–4100 BC)
  • Windmill Colina culture
    • Stonehenge
  • Xinglongwa culture
    • Beifudi site
  • Xinle culture
  • Yangshao culture
    • Banpo and Xishuipo settlements.
  • Zhaobaogou culture

Later Neolithic

Periodization: 6500–4500 BC; Europe: 3500–3000 BC; Elsewhere: varies greatly, depending on region.

  • Pottery Neolithic (Fertile Crescent, 6400 – 4500 BC)
    • Halaf culture (Mesopotamia, 6100 BC and 5100 BC)
    • Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period (Mesopotamia, 5500–5000 BC)
    • Ubaid ane/2 (5400–4500 BC)
  • Funnelbeaker culture (N/Eastern Europe, 4300–2800 BC)

Periodization: About East: 4500–3300 BC; Europe: 3000–1700 BC; Elsewhere: varies profoundly, depending on region. In the Americas, the Eneolithic ended as belatedly as the 19th century AD for some peoples.

  • Ubaid 3/four (Mesopotamia, 4500–4000 BC)
  • early Uruk period (Mesopotamia, 4000–3800 BC)
  • middle Uruk period (Mesopotamia, 3800–3400 BC)
  • late Trypillian (Eastern Europe, 3000–2750 BC)
  • Gaudo Culture (Italy, 3150–2950 BC)
  • Corded Ware culture (North/Eastern Europe, 2900–2350)
  • Beaker culture (Fundamental/Western Europe, 2900–1800 BC)

Comparative chronology

Run into also

  • Céide Fields
  • Megalith
  • Neolithic pass up
  • Neolithic Europe
  • Neolithic Revolution
  • Neolithic organized religion
  • Neolithic tomb
  • Ötzi
  • Paleolithic
  • Rock art of the Djelfa region
  • Tabon Human being
  • Two layer hypothesis




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External links

  • Romeo, Nick (Feb. 2015). Embracing Stone Age Couple Found in Greek Cavern. “Rare double burials discovered at one of the largest Neolithic burial sites in Europe.”
    National Geographic Society
  • McNamara, John (2005). “Neolithic Catamenia”. World Museum of Human. Archived from the original on 2008-04-30. Retrieved

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    (ix). doi:10.11141/ia.9.four.

  • Rincon, Paul (11 May 2006). “Brutal lives of Stone Age Britons”.
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  • Electric current Directions in West African Prehistory – McIntosh & McIntosh (1983)

  • “Neolithic”.
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The Ceramic Figures Above Were Created During the Neolithic Period