Unit 4 Lesson 1 Coding Activity 3

Unit 4 Lesson 1 Coding Activity 3.

Unit of measurement iv Lesson 1

Activity Guide – Big Data Sleuth Card


logo-teal.png

Directions:

  • With a partner, select 1 of the tools in the list to the right.

  • Determine what the tool is showing.

  • Find the source of the data it allows yous to explore.

  • Complete the table below.

Web Sites:

1. Web archive

http://www.archive.org



2. Measure of America

http://www.measureofamerica.org/maps/

three. Current of air Sensor network

http://earth.nullschool.net/

four. Twitter sentiment

https://www.csc.ncsu.edu/faculty/healey/tweet_viz/tweet_app/

5. Alternative Fuel Locator

http://www.afdc.energy.gov/locator/stations/

Website Name



sentiment viz-Tweet Sentiment Visualization

What is this website potentially useful for?

 What kinds of problems could the provided data be used to solve?

The website gives an idea of how people are reacting to certain events or words. For example, I typed in AP exams and was reminded that everyone is only equally stressed. It is very revealing to how people feel in the moment.

Is the provided visualization useful?

Does it provide insight into the data? How does information technology help you await at a lot of information at in one case? How could it improve?

Yes information technology provides insight into the data, specifically how people feel, topics, timeline, where they’re doing it, and all tweets. Information technology could improve by explaining the visualizations more.

Where is the information coming from?

Check for “Well-nigh”, “Download”, or “API”. You lot may also need to do a web search.

  • Is the data from one source or many?

  • Is information technology static or live?

  • Is the source reputable? Why or why not?

  • Add a link to the raw data if you can find one.

The information is from Twitter. It is live. Information technology is reputable considering it is from a college.

Do you consider this “large” data?

Explicate your reasoning.

No. This is not big data considering it is non “then big or complex that traditional data processing applications are inadequate”.

Unit of measurement 4 Lesson 3

Unit of measurement 4 Lesson 03

Name(s)_______________________________________________ Flow ______ Date ___________________

Activeness Guide – Research Yourself



Your Digital Cocky

You may already exist aware of information most you lot that is freely available online, but you probably haven’t idea almost it from the standpoint of research. Suppose someone were to research you online. What would they exist able to find? What connections could they make from the existing data out there to learn even more than about you?

Conducting Your Research

You should look through any publicly available pieces of information online. Start by simply looking upwardly your name in a search engine only then refine your results by calculation more specific information, like the place you live. Don’t forget social networks, your schoolhouse website, or whatever other websites yous often use.

Tape Your Findings

In the space below record the information you detect virtually yourself. If you know something is available online but can’t become to it now, record it anyhow. If y’all need more than space, you can tape your findings on the back of this sheet as well.

Information

Where you constitute information technology

I competed and got second identify in the fifth grade spelling bee

I reviewed

The Painting

I started an online creative writing class

I follow Due south Bay Music Association on Facebook
I follow South Bay Children’s Choir on Facebook

http://www.elsegundousd.net/apps/news/commodity/238903
https://mommypoppins.com/kids/the-painting-anna-thompsons-review
https://sites.google.com/site/esgatecreativewriting/
https://world wide web.facebook.com/southbaymusic/

https://www.facebook.com/southbaychildrenschoir/

Now connect the dots.
If someone

really

wanted to observe out about yous online, given the information in a higher place, what would they know almost you?

They would know I am a 14-sixteen twelvemonth old female living in El Segundo California who is interested in music.

Of the pieces of information y’all found above, which practise you think poses the biggest threat to your security or privacy?

Why do you think then?

The age is a threat to my privacy.

Unit 4 Lesson 6


Worksheet – Exploring the Vigenère Zero Widget



Discover: Try the Vigenère Nix Widget !

Goals
:

  • Empathise how the Vigenere Cipher Algorithm works

  • Understand why simple frequency assay doesn’t work against this cipher

  • Figure out what makes for a practiced v. bad secret key

Instructions
:

  • You should accept a partner for this exploration.

  • Get to the interactive

    Vigenère Zero Widget

  • Click on buttons and try things out!

     Solve the mystery of what this tool is doing and how it’s doing information technology!

Yous should endeavor each of the following – check off the

DONE

column once you’ve tried it

Attempt This

Details

Done

Encrypt a few different messages using dissimilar cloak-and-dagger keys

  • Enter a text message in the box and secret cardinal

  • Step through the encoding of each character to see what’s happening

  • Try a different cloak-and-dagger primal


X

Decrypt a message

  • Re-create/paste the ciphertext of an encrypted message into the text message area.

  • Hit the button to “decrypt”

  • At present stride through and see what happens


X

Find a “bad” secret cardinal

  • Hint: try “A”  or “AAAAA”  or “GGGG”  or any unmarried graphic symbol, what about other patterns?

  • What makes a key bad?


X

Find a “proficient” secret cardinal

  • Use what you learned nigh bad keys and do the opposite

  • What are the characteristics of a good key?


Ten

Try to decrypt without knowing the key (in other words: effort to crevice it!)

  • Have one partner expect away, while the other re-create/pastes the ciphertext of an encrypted bulletin into the text area, and deletes the secret key from view

  • Have the partner who looked away come back and try to crack the bulletin


X

.

Thought Questions:

You might want to play with the widget a fiddling flake more in trying to answer these questions, merely they tin be answered based just on the properties of the Vigenère cipher.

  • Describe in your ain words what the Vigenere Zilch Algorithm is doing.


The x-centrality represents the letter of the alphabet being encrypted and the y-axis represents the associated letter of the key. The ciphers moves to the intersection betwixt two. On each axis, the letter below keeps moving alphabetically downwards.

  • What makes for a good 5. bad secret central using the Vigenere cipher?  Give examples of a skillful central and a bad one and explicate why.


A good key is one that is longer than the information being put in, non repetitive, and not a word unto itself. A bad cardinal would exist like “AAAAA” or “MYKEY” because those are predictable. A good central, similar a good password, would exist “AWEVDEPOSA”.

  • Compare and Contrast the departure between a substitution nothing (Caesar or Random) and Vigenere, using the message

    “I think I tin can I think I can I recall I tin can”

    to explicate why Vigenère is a stronger grade of encryption than a commutation cypher.


Vignere:


UXSZMPADAZMEKLFZKLKDOSHJGYZXHRXJZRCZSD_MK


Caesar:

Z

m
y
z
e
b

Z

t
r
east

Z

k
y
z
due east
b

Z

t
r
e

Z

yard
y
z
e
b

Z

t
r
e

Random:
R

b
h
r
g
fifty

R

a
e
m

R

b
h
r
g
l

R

a
east
m

R

b
h
r
k
l

R

a
e
m

With a repetitive message similar “I think I can”, etc. information technology would be really easy for a hacker to predict the shift or commutation.


  • Will frequency assay work to crack the Vigenere naught?  Why or why not? Go on your answer as simple equally possible.

No, frequency assay volition not work because each letter does not represent the same letter every time.

  • If I promised you that the bulletin at right was encrypted with the Vigenère cipher widget, would that make it easy to crack (yes or no)?  Explain why.  Your caption should include a description of what you would demand to know to decrypt this and how you might go well-nigh figuring that out.

Knowing this was a vignere zippo encrypted message would make this very difficult to crack. We would at least need to know the central to decrypt this,

  • What if I told y’all that the message above was encrypted with the Vigenère cipher widget

    and

    the key I used was 10 characters long.  Does that make it whatsoever easier to crack the message?  Again, what would you demand to figure out and how would you become about finding it?


That makes it easier because you could possibly figure out the clan between the axes and wait at repeated letters every x, but it would still be extremely hard.


Worksheet – Keys and Passwords



Answer these questions

These questions are intended to be answered as part of an activity using

http://howsecureismypassword.cyberspace
.  The questions below assume ask you to try things out using that tool.

  • Create a few passwords using 8 lowercase ASCII characters (a-z).  What’due south the longest corporeality of time-to-crack yous tin can generate?


FOREVER

  • Using whatever characters on the keyboard, what’s the longest amount of time-to-crevice yous tin generate with an 8-character password?


FOREVER

  • As you lot endeavor passwords, what seems to be the single most significant gene in making a countersign difficult to crack?  Why do y’all call back this is?




Length. With each new letter, there are more possibilities for what the password can be. With 1 alphabetic character, in that location are 26 options, but with 2 messages, you’ve more than doubled that number of options, allow alone 10 or 15 or more.

  • Stance: Is an 8-character minimum a good password length for websites to crave? Give your opinion, yes or no, and explain why you lot recollect that.


I think it could exist a bit longer, just given how exponentially the length of time needed increases once the length is loftier plenty.

  • The AP CS Principles framework contains the following statement:

    Implementing cybersecurity has software, hardware, and homo components.

    Based on what you’ve learned so far, depict at least one way that cybersecurity involves “human components.”


Humans are the ones writing these passwords, and and so if they follow the rules (8 characters, letters, numbers, symbols, no common phrases or patterns)

Hopefully you can now capeesh this comic:

http://xkcd.com/936/

Unit 4 Lesson 7


Activity Guide – Public Central Bean Counting



Sending Clandestine Letters without agreeing a on a secret key alee of time

In this activeness, cups filled with beans will represent information going dorsum and forth between Alice and Bob.  We do this action to testify you lot a uncomplicated version of something chosen

Public Primal Encryption

so we can innovate you lot to the bones procedure of information exchange and to some of the terminology involved (which we’ll become to later on).

This activeness will show a technique for Alice and Bob to transport secret messages to each other,

without like-minded on a secret cardinal alee of fourth dimension
, and only by exchanging letters over public, insecure channels.

Groundwork: A metaphor — cup of beans as one-manner function

  • Imagine that putting some beans into a clear plastic cup and then putting a chapeau on the cup is an encryption function.  Only the person who put the lid on is able to remove it.

  • Anybody else can endeavour to count the beans but they tin can’t take the lid off; they merely have to stare into the loving cup (like trying to count the jelly beans in a jar at the carnival).  This represents a

    computationally difficult problem.

  • In this activity, there is a wrinkle: a person

    can


    add beans

    to the cup by pushing them through the slot in the top of the lid. The result is that there will exist more beans in the cup, simply information technology’s still difficult to count them past looking in from the outside.

Information Exchange Procedure

Materials

  • A clear plastic cup

  • A few handfuls of dried beans

  • (optional) A lid with a slot in the acme that would let a bean to exist pushed through.
    If you don’t take lids,

    you lot could use plastic wrap, or merely use your powers of imagination.

Setup

  • Decide who is playing Alice, Bob and Eve.

  • Give all of the cups and lids to Alice to start.

  • Alice and Bob should each take a handful of beans.

Eve:

Eve, y’all volition direct all the action.  Yous should read all the instructions of the procedure out loud to everyone, and Alice and Bob should follow along accordingly.  (Alice and Bob can follow along on their sheets likewise.)

Eve reads….

Alice:

1.

Alice, plow your back to Eve and Bob while y’all practise this:


  • Put a random number of beans into a cup —

    Recollect this number (or write it down in a secret location).

  • Put the chapeau on the cup.

ii.

And then


put the cup onto the table in front end of Bob and Eve.

NOTE: Eve and Bob tin merely guess how many beans are in the cup.

Bob:

  1. Bob, take the cup off the table and turn your back to Alice and Eve while you do this:

  • Pick a secret number to send to Alice.

    Remember this number
    .

  • Count out that many beans and add them to the cup.

ii.

Then



put the cup back onto the tabular array.




Notation: Even though she might exist able to see the number of beans is different, Eve can yet only gauge how many are in the cup.

Eve:

Quick question for Eve: Exercise you have whatsoever thought what cloak-and-dagger number Bob is sending to Alice?
Note:

Unless Bob and Alice put so few beans into the loving cup that you can clearly run into from the outside how many there were, your reply should exist “No.”  You might be able to make a judge, but y’all wouldn’t know for sure whether information technology was right.  Okay…move on.

Alice:

Once more, turn your back to Bob and Eve while y’all do this:

  • Take the cup off the table

  • Remove the lid and dump out the beans.

  • Count off the number of beans originally in the cup.

  • What’s left is Bob’southward cloak-and-dagger number!

Epitomize:

  • Alice and Bob did not have to agree on anything, or communicate ahead of fourth dimension.

  • Alice and Bob merely exchanged information in public, correct in forepart of Eve.

  • Eve would take to exist able to count the beans in the cup without opening information technology, both on the way over to Bob and on the way back to Alice, in social club to determine what Bob was trying to send Alice.

Attempt it again?

  • Change roles and attempt the procedure again to see how it works.  Attempt to make it hard for Eve to guess the secret number.  And, Eve, practise endeavor to guess.

  • Here’s a fun wrinkle that makes it fifty-fifty more impossible for Eve: Use iii cups!

    • Alice, put a random number of beans into 3 different cups (you need to call back how many total beans you used, or you could remember the 3 separate numbers).

    • Bob, for the number y’all wish to send, distribute the beans randomly into the 3 cups; information technology doesn’t matter how many go into each cup equally long equally the total is the number yous want to send.

    • Alice, once y’all have the 3 cups back, either dump all the beans out and take away the full number of beans you originally put into the cups, or subtract the individual amounts from each cup.  Either way, the beans left over are the ones Bob sent you.

.

Cups and Beans — What’southward the point?

What’s the indicate of the cups and beans activity?

Public primal cryptography is what makes secure transactions on the Internet possible. Apparently, computers don’t commutation information with beans in plastic cups; they use data (numbers mostly) and the methods of encryption use some math, which we will see in a later lesson.  Here the

number of beans represented


data

and the

cups represented encrypted data.

In order to see how the real thing works, we demand to know some terms so nosotros tin talk about it accurately.

First,

Notice:

  • At no point did Bob or Alice agree on whatsoever clandestine password, number, or key.

  • They merely exchanged information in public.

  • Bob can encrypt a secret message for Alice past using something that Alice puts out in public

  • Eve could non tell what was going back forth without only guessing either Alice or Bob’s private number.

Asymmetric Keys

The cups and beans represent

disproportionate

(pronounced “
A
-symmetric”) encryption considering the process for encrypting a message (which Bob does) is different from the procedure for decrypting the message (which Alice does).

Upwardly to this indicate, the encryption schemes we’ve studied have been

symmetric
. This means that the key used to encrypt the message is the aforementioned key needed to decrypt the message.

Private Key

In the instance of this activity, Alice’s clandestine number – the number of beans that she put into the cup originally is known as her

private key
.  Simply she knows it, and she never shares it with anyone.

Public Central

The sealed container sitting on the table represents Alice’s

public cardinal
.  In the real world

a public primal is something related to the private key, that tin be safely shared in public, that another person tin use to encrypt a bulletin. In this instance, the cup with the lid on top.

Encrypting (a message)

When Bob adds beans to the sealed loving cup, he is using a public key to encrypt a message. Since they get mixed in with the other beans (which are related to Alice’s individual key), no one, non fifty-fifty Bob, knows how many total beans in that location are.

Decrypting (the message)

When Alice receives the cup back from Bob, she can

decrypt

the message by opening the hat and counting the beans.  Since she knows how many beans she put in in the beginning place, she can subtract that number of beans and make it at the number that Bob intended to send.

Public Primal Cryptography

This entire form of substitution is called

Public Central Cryptography
. In this course of secure communication, every participant has

both

a public and a private key. When sending a message, the sender encrypts his message using the

public primal

of the recipient.

The

real math

is actually not that complicated.  It essentially uses multiplication and division instead of addition and subtraction.  The next lesson shows how it works.

Name(s)_______________________________________________ Period ______ Date ___________________



Activity Guide – Multiplication + Modulo



Summary

In this activeness yous’ll you’ll multiply numbers as input into the modulo functioning and explore some interesting properties that chronicle to cryptography.



Goal:

Understand how multiplication + modulo can exist used to make computationally-hard-to-crack encryption.



Tools
:

  • Calculator:

    you lot probably desire a calculator handy for multiplying big numbers

  • The “Modernistic Clock” widget

    in code studio (pictured at right)



Assumption:

You have been introduced to the modulo operation and the “clock” illustration for it.

Step 1:  Experiment with the Mod Clock



Goal:

familiarize yourself with properties of the Modulo operation



Go your feet wet – play

  • Try inputting different values into the mod clock for

    both

    the “number” and the “clock size”.

  • Effort big numbers and small numbers for both



Questions
:

  1. Using a clock size of l, write a listing of 5 numbers that produce a result of 0.

50, 100, 250, 200, 300

  1. With clock size of 50 how many total numbers are there that produce a result of 0?  (If the listing is short, write information technology out. If the list is long, draw a pattern of what the numbers are).

fifty*whatever integer

  1. Using a clock size of 13, can you find a number to input that produces a

    result

    of thirteen?  (If and then, what is it? If not, why non?)

No because when you accept a rest of xiii and you are dividing by xiii, yous just change the result before by one. Then 26 mod 13 could give you lot one remainder xiii, only that would not make sense because when you divide it over again by thirteen, you lot will go i, then you may equally well add the ii one’due south together.

  1. Using a clock size of 13, detect the answers to the following:

1 Modern 13

1

ane,000 MOD 13

12

10 Mod 13

x

ten,000 Modernistic 13

3

100 MOD 13

9

100,000 MOD 13

4







Are these results surprising or interesting?  Why or why non?

No because this office is just based in basic partition.



Step 2:  Toward encryption – Use multiplication to produce inputs



Experiment – Small changes to inputs, big changes to outputs.

Using a clock size of 37, allow’s multiply two numbers (we’ll call them A and B) to utilise as input, then brand minor changes to each while holding the other constant.  We’ll e’er use the formula

A * B Mod Chiliad.

We’ll offset with A=20 and B=50 and Thou=37. So hither is the beginning outcome…

20


*


50

Modern 37 =

i



Now notice in the balance of these values making minor adjustments to A and B individually.

Utilize a computer, if necessary, to compute A * B.  Employ the Modernistic Clock to compute the modulus of the event.



Increment A

Increase B

21
*50 MOD 37

14

20*
51

MOD 37

sixteen

22
*50 MOD 37

27

20*
52

MOD 37

29

23
*50 Modernistic 37


three

20*
53

Modernistic 37

v

Consequence:

What do you discover about these results?  Is at that place a pattern?  Could you predict the consequence of

25 * 50 MOD 37
?

Yes you just add thirteen to the previous result which is the difference betwixt 50 and 37.

Experiment ii – Guessing inputs is hard?:

Using a clock size of 101, we’ll give you the value of A and fifty-fifty concur the result of the modulo operation constant.

Your task:

find a value for B (the bare) that makes the math work out.



i)

2 *

51

Modernistic 101 = 1

2)

three *

34

Modernistic 101 = 1

3)

4 *

26

MOD 101 = 1

Takeaways:

Solving modulus equations similar

ii * ___ MOD 101 = 1

is “hard” because yous tin’t solve it like a typical equation. There are no easy patterns or shortcuts like other equations yous might see in a math class. Every bit you learned in step i (hopefully) there is an infinite list of single values for which

___ MOD 101 = 1
.  (The listing is one, 102, 203, 304, 405…etc). With multiplication, to solve

2 * ___ Modern 101 = 1

y’all end up randomly guessing to find some number to multiply by two that gives y’all a result in that list.



Things go especially “hard” when yous use a prime equally the clock size. Thanks to some special properties of prime numbers

with a prime clock size there’s only one solution to each modulus equation.

You are guaranteed that in that location is the number less than the clock size itself, but there are still 100 dissimilar values yous have to effort. With a

brute forcefulness search

you lot could get through them all in a couple minutes.  But what if the clock size were a 50-digit prime number?



Encryption!

Whenever yous have a problem for which the only way to solve it is by random guessing or creature strength search over a large range of values, you have a candidate for a encryption. Next yous’ll get to try it!

Unit of measurement Lesson 8

Worksheet – Video Guide for “Cybersecurity and Criminal offence”


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Overview

Cybercrime causes huge problems for society – personally, financially, and even in matters of national security. In this video, Jenny Martin from Symantec and Parisa Tabriz from Google explain what cybercrime is, how the same advantages in the Cyberspace’s structure can be exploited equally disadvantages, and how to defend against attacks with cybersecurity.

Directions

  1. Watch the video, “The Net – Cybersecurity and Crime”.

  2. Reply the questions below.

Questions

  1. Name 3 specific examples of cybercrime.


Credit carte numbers, social security and health care information, aerial drones have been hacked

  1. What is a computer virus?


A virus is an executable programme that gets installed, usually unintentionally, and harms the user and their figurer.

  1. What is a Distributed Denial of Service attack?



A distributed Denial of Service attac
1000 is







the intentional paralyzing of a estimator network by flooding it with information sent simultaneously from many individual computers.






  1. What is a phishing scam?

A phishing scam is




the effort to obtain sensitive information such equally usernames, passwords, and credit carte details (and, indirectly, money), often for malicious reasons, past disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic advice.


  1. Pick a type of cybercrime and explicate how to defend against it using cybersecurity techniques mentioned in the video.


Protecting against cybercrime is as easy as using strong passwords, checking for authentic websites, installing organisation security updates as often as possible and non installing untrustworthy software.

Unit 4 Lesson 1 Coding Activity 3

Source: https://sites.google.com/a/esusdstudents.org/annathompson18/ap-computer-science-principles-unit-4