What Are the Four Predominant Elements in Biology

What Are the Four Predominant Elements in Biology.

The

Bioelements

Or biogenic elements (bio = life, genes = beginning) are those chemical elements that make upwardly the affair of living beings.

In that location are approximately 70 of these elements, which vary in different proportions and not all are nowadays in all living beings (Bioelements, 2009).

All matter in the universe occurs in the form of atoms of a minor number of elements. In that location are 92 natural chemical elements in the Universe.

From our terrestrial perspective it is difficult to conceive of life forms in which the elements hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus exercise not play a predominant role (Chemical science BIOGENIC ELEMENTS., Southward.F.).

The fact that they really play this office throughout the universe seems very likely, partly because (apart from phosphorus) these are the virtually arable elements throughout the creation in addition to occur in significant quantities between the building blocks of the terrestrial planets .

In addition, their chemistry is particularly well suited to the development of complex structures and functions that are characteristic of living systems.

Since the Sun And planets formed just 4.half-dozen billion years ago in a universe that is perhaps fifteen billion years old, information technology is articulate that these”biogenic elements”experienced a long and complex chemical history before joining Earth’s biochemistry.

Now it is non known whether this earlier history played a direct role in the origin of life on Earth.

What is articulate is that astrochemistry is largely the chemistry of biogenic elements and that understanding the nature and evolution of chemical complexity across the universe is crucial to understanding both the early chemical land of our own solar system and The frequency with which related atmospheric condition exist in other parts of our galaxy and other galaxies (National Research Council (United states of america) Committee on Planetary Biological science and Chemical Development, 1990).



Classification of bioelements


According to their amount in the constitution of the biomolecules, the bioelements are classified as primary, secondary and trace elements (Rastogi, 2003).


1- Primary bioelements

The primary bioelements are those that are found in the greatest amount (approximately 96% of living thing) and are the ones that make up near of the organic biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids).

These elements are characterized by being lite (depression atomic weight) and abundant. The primary bioelements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur.


Carbon (C)

Information technology is the main bioelement that constitutes the biomolecules. It has the power to assemble to form large carbon-carbon chains through single, double or triple bonds, as well as cyclic structures.

It can contain a variety of functional groups like oxygen, hydroxide, phosphate, amino, nitro etc., resulting in a huge variety of different molecules.

The carbon atom is probably 1 of the almost important bioelements since all biomolecules contain carbon. One tin find, for instance, lipids without phosphorus or nitrogen (for example cholesterol) merely in that location are no carbon-free biomolecules.


Hydrogen (H)

Information technology is one of the components of the water molecule, which is essential for life, and is part of the carbon skeletons of organic molecules.

The more hydrogen molecules a biomolecule has, the smaller it will be and the more it will oxidize, producing more energy.

For example, fatty acids accept more than electrons than carbohydrates, so they have the ability to produce more energy when they degrade.


Oxygen (O)

It is the other element that makes up the water molecule. It is a very electronegative element that allows a greater production of energy through aerobic respiration.

In addition, the polar bonds with hydrogen, resulting in water-soluble polar radicals.


Nitrogen (N)

Element that is present in all amino acids. Through nitrogen, amino acids take the ability to class a peptide bond to produce proteins.

This bioelement is also establish in the nitrogenous bases of nucleic acids. It is eliminated past the organism in the grade of urea.

One of the offset biomolecules to exist formed was ATP, due to the abundance of nitrogen in the Earth’s atmosphere. Nitrogen is part of ATP adenosine.


Friction match


(P)

Grouping is mainly found as phosphate (PO

four


three-

) That is role of the nucleotides. Form energy-rich bonds that permit for piece of cake sharing (ATP).

It also has importance in the structure of Dna since it forms fofodiester bond with the nucleotides to course this molecule.


Sulfur (Due south)

A bioelement mainly found as a sulfhydryl grouping (-SH) that is function of amino acids such as cysteine, in which disulfide bonds are essential to create stability in the tertiary and quaternary construction of proteins.

It is also found in coenzyme A, essential for diverse universal metabolic pathways, such every bit the Krebs cycle (Llull, South.F.). It is the heaviest main bioelement existing since its atomic weight is 36 g / mol.


2- Secondary Bioelements

These types of elements are as well nowadays in all living things but not in the same quantities as the principal elements.

They exercise not class biomolecules but are used in jail cell concentration gradients, dielectric signaling of neurons and neurotransmitters, stabilize charged biomolecules such equally ATP and are part of os tissue.

These bioelements are calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (Chiliad), magnesium (Mg) and chlorine (Cl). The near abundant are sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium.


Calcium (Ca)

Calcium is essential for living things because plants require calcium to build cell walls.

It forms part of the vertebrate bone tissue in the form of hydroxyapatite (Ca3 (PO4) two) 2, Ca (OH) 2 and its fixation is related to the consumption of vitamin D and sunlight. Calcium present in ionic form, serves as an important regulator of processes in the cellular cytoplasm.

Calcium affects musculus neuromuscular excitability (along with Grand, Na, and Mg ions and participates in muscle contraction.) Hypocalcemia leads to colic-tetany. Information technology as well participates in the regulation of glycogen synthesis in kidney, liver and skeletal musculus.

Calcium decreases the permeability of the cell membrane and the capillary wall, resulting in its anti-inflammatory, anti-exudative and anti-allergic furnishings. It is besides necessary for blood clotting.

Calcium ions are of import intracellular messengers, which influence the secretion of insulin in the circulation and the secretion of digestive enzymes in the modest intestine.

Calcium reabsorption is affected by the common relationship of calcium to phosphates in the intestinal contents, and by the presence of cholecalciferol, which regulates the active reabsorption of calcium and phosphorus.

The substitution of calcium and phosphates is hormonally regulated with parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. The paratoid hormone releases calcium from the basic in the blood.

Calcitonin promotes calcium deposition in the bones, which lowers their blood levels.


Magnesium (Mg)

Magnesium is a secondary bioelement that is part of biomolecules since it is a cofactor of chlorophyll. Magnesium is a typical intracellular cation and is an essential role of body tissues and fluids.

It is present in the skeleton (70%) and in the muscles of animals and among its functions is to stabilize the negative charge of the phosphates of the ATP molecule.


Sodium (Na)

It is an important extracellular cation, participates in the homeostasis of the organism. It protects the torso from excessive water loss through sodium channels and participates in the spread of nervus excitation.


Potassium (1000)

It participates in the homeostasis of the organism and in the propagation of the nervous excitation past channels of potassium. Potassium deficiency tin can lead to cardiac abort.


Chlorine (Cl)

A halogen of grouping Vii of the periodic table. It is present in the organism of living beings mainly as chloride ion which stabilizes the positive charge of the metal ions (Biogenic elements, S.F.).


iii- Trace elements

They are present in some living beings. Many of these trace elements deed as cofactors in the enzymes.

The trace elements are boron (B), bromine (Br), copper (Cu), fluorine (F), manganese (Mn), silicon (Si), fe (Fe), iodine



Proportion of bioelements


There is a difference in the proportion of bioelements in organisms and in the atmosphere, hydrosphere or World crust , Which is indicative of a pick of elements more suitable to form structures and perform specific functions above affluence.

For example, carbon is about 20% of the weight of organisms, but its concentration in the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide is depression. On the other mitt, nitrogen makes upwardly almost 80% of the Globe’southward atmosphere, all the same simply 3.3% of nitrogen makes up the human being body.

The post-obit table shows the proportion of some bioelements in living organisms compared to the rest of the World (Bioelements, s.f.):


Bioelements: Classification (Primary and Secondary)

Table 1: abundance of bioelements in the universe, on world and in the human body.





Bioelements combine together and can class thousands of different molecules. Biomolecules are involved in the constitution of cells.

These tin can be classified into inorganic (water and minerals) and organic (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids).

Biomolecules are known equally the structural blocks of life since they are the basic bricks or molds in which more than complex molecules are made up.

For example, amino acids are the structural blocks of proteins. The amino acrid sequence determines the chief structure of a protein.

Molecules such every bit lipids course the jail cell membrane and unproblematic soft carbohydrates form complex carbohydrates equally is the instance with the glycogen molecule.

At that place is also the example of the nitrogenous bases, which when attached to the ribose or deoxyribose saccharide, grade the RNA and DNA molecules where their sequence will be read from the genetic lawmaking.



References



  1. Bioelements

    . (2009, Dec fourteen). Taken from wikiteka: wikiteka.co.uk.

  2. Bioelements

    . (S.f.). Taken from cronodon: cronodon.com.

  3. Biogenic elements

    . (Southward.F.). Taken from chemlaba: chemlaba.wordpress.com.

  4. CHEMISTRY BIOGENIC ELEMENTS.

    (S.F.). Taken from intranet.tdmu.edu.ua: intranet.tdmu.edu.ua.
  5. Llull, R. (S.F.).

    The living matter components

    . Taken from bioluliaes: bioluliaes.wordpress.com.
  6. National Research Council (The states) Commission on Planetary Biology and Chemical Evolution. (1990). The Cosmic History of the Biogenic Elements and Compounds. In

    The Search for Life’southward Origins: Progress and Time to come Directions in Planetary Biology and Chemic Evolution.

    Washington DC: National Academies Press (US).
  7. Rastogi, V.B. (2003).

    Mod Biology.

    New Delhi: pitambar publishing.

What Are the Four Predominant Elements in Biology

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