Which Congressional Group is Most Likely Described in the Passage.
The United States Congress is made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Learn more well-nigh the powers of the Legislative Co-operative of the federal authorities of the Usa.
Established by Article I of the Constitution, the Legislative Branch consists of the Business firm of Representatives and the Senate, which together class the U.s. Congress. The Constitution grants Congress the sole authority to enact legislation and declare war, the correct to confirm or reject many Presidential appointments, and substantial investigative powers.
The House of Representatives is made up of 435 elected members, divided among the l states in proportion to their full population. In addition, there are half-dozen non-voting members, representing the Commune of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and four other territories of the United states of america. The presiding officer of the bedchamber is the Speaker of the House, elected past the Representatives. He or she is third in the line of succession to the Presidency.
Members of the Business firm are elected every two years and must be 25 years of age, a U.S. citizen for at least seven years, and a resident of the country (but not necessarily the district) they represent.
The Firm has several powers assigned exclusively to it, including the power to initiate revenue bills, impeach federal officials, and elect the President in the case of an balloter college tie.
The Senate is equanimous of 100 Senators, ii for each state. Until the ratification of the 17th Subpoena in 1913, Senators were chosen by state legislatures, not by popular vote. Since then, they have been elected to 6-year terms by the people of each state. Senator’s terms are staggered so that nearly i-third of the Senate is up for reelection every two years. Senators must be xxx years of historic period, U.Southward. citizens for at least 9 years, and residents of the state they stand for.
The Vice President of the United States serves as President of the Senate and may bandage the decisive vote in the event of a tie in the Senate.
The Senate has the sole ability to confirm those of the President’s appointments that require consent, and to ratify treaties. There are, however, two exceptions to this rule: the House must also approve appointments to the Vice Presidency and any treaty that involves foreign trade. The Senate also tries impeachment cases for federal officials referred to information technology past the Firm.
In order to laissez passer legislation and send information technology to the President for his signature, both the Business firm and the Senate must pass the same bill by bulk vote. If the President vetoes a neb, they may override his veto by passing the bill over again in each chamber with at least 2-thirds of each body voting in favor.
The Legislative Process | Powers of Congress | Regime Oversight
The Legislative Process
The get-go stride in the legislative process is the introduction of a bill to Congress. Anyone can write it, merely only members of Congress can innovate legislation. Some important bills are traditionally introduced at the request of the President, such equally the annual federal upkeep. During the legislative procedure, all the same, the initial nib tin undergo desperate changes.
Later being introduced, a bill is referred to the appropriate commission for review. There are 17 Senate committees, with lxx subcommittees, and 23 House committees, with 104 subcommittees. The committees are not set in stone, but alter in number and form with each new Congress equally required for the efficient consideration of legislation. Each committee oversees a specific policy surface area, and the subcommittees take on more specialized policy areas. For example, the Firm Committee on Means and Ways includes subcommittees on Social Security and Trade.
A bill is first considered in a subcommittee, where it may exist accepted, amended, or rejected entirely. If the members of the subcommittee agree to motility a bill forward, it is reported to the total committee, where the process is repeated once more. Throughout this stage of the process, the committees and subcommittees call hearings to investigate the merits and flaws of the bill. They invite experts, advocates, and opponents to appear before the committee and provide testimony, and can compel people to appear using subpoena power if necessary.
If the total committee votes to corroborate the bill, information technology is reported to the floor of the House or Senate, and the majority party leadership decides when to place the bill on the calendar for consideration. If a bill is especially pressing, it may be considered right away. Others may wait for months or never exist scheduled at all.
When the beak comes up for consideration, the Business firm has a very structured debate procedure. Each fellow member who wishes to speak only has a few minutes, and the number and kind of amendments are unremarkably limited. In the Senate, debate on about bills is unlimited — Senators may speak to issues other than the bill nether consideration during their speeches, and any amendment can be introduced. Senators can use this to filibuster bills under consideration, a process by which a Senator delays a vote on a pecker — and by extension its passage — by refusing to stand downwards. A supermajority of threescore Senators can pause a filibuster past invoking cloture, or the cession of fence on the neb, and forcing a vote. Once fence is over, the votes of a simple majority passes the nib.
A bill must pass both houses of Congress before information technology goes to the President for consideration. Though the Constitution requires that the two bills have the exact aforementioned wording, this rarely happens in do. To bring the bills into alignment, a Briefing Committee is convened, consisting of members from both chambers. The members of the committee produce a conference report, intended every bit the last version of the neb. Each chamber so votes over again to corroborate the conference study. Depending on where the neb originated, the concluding text is and so enrolled by either the Clerk of the Business firm or the Secretary of the Senate, and presented to the Speaker of the Business firm and the President of the Senate for their signatures. The beak is then sent to the President.
When receiving a bill from Congress, the President has several options. If the President agrees essentially with the neb, he or she may sign it into police, and the bill is then printed in the Statutes at Big. If the President believes the police force to be bad policy, he may veto it and send information technology dorsum to Congress. Congress may override the veto with a two-thirds vote of each bedroom, at which point the bill becomes law and is printed.
There are 2 other options that the President may practice. If Congress is in session and the President takes no action inside ten days, the bill becomes police force. If Congress adjourns before 10 days are up and the President takes no action, then the nib dies and Congress may non vote to override. This is called a pocket veto, and if Congress still wants to pass the legislation, they must begin the entire process anew.
Powers of Congress
Congress, as ane of the three coequal branches of government, is ascribed pregnant powers past the Constitution. All legislative power in the authorities is vested in Congress, meaning that information technology is the merely part of the government that can make new laws or change existing laws. Executive Branch agencies issue regulations with the total strength of law, but these are merely nether the authority of laws enacted by Congress. The President may veto bills Congress passes, just Congress may also override a veto by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the Firm of Representatives.
Commodity I of the Constitution enumerates the powers of Congress and the specific areas in which information technology may legislate. Congress is too empowered to enact laws deemed “necessary and proper” for the execution of the powers given to any office of the government under the Constitution.
Part of Congress’due south exercise of legislative authority is the establishment of an annual budget for the regime. To this finish, Congress levies taxes and tariffs to provide funding for essential authorities services. If enough coin cannot be raised to fund the government, then Congress may also authorize borrowing to brand up the deviation. Congress can besides mandate spending on specific items: legislatively directed spending, ordinarily known as “earmarks,” specifies funds for a particular projection, rather than for a government agency.
Both chambers of Congress take extensive investigative powers, and may compel the production of testify or testimony toward whatsoever end they deem necessary. Members of Congress spend much of their time holding hearings and investigations in committee. Refusal to cooperate with a Congressional subpoena tin result in charges of antipathy of Congress, which could issue in a prison term.
The Senate maintains several powers to itself: It ratifies treaties by a two-thirds supermajority vote and confirms the appointments of the President past a bulk vote. The consent of the House of Representatives is besides necessary for the ratification of trade agreements and the confirmation of the Vice President.
Congress besides holds the sole power to declare war.
Oversight of the executive branch is an important Congressional check on the President’s power and a balance against his discretion in implementing laws and making regulations.
A major way that Congress conducts oversight is through hearings. The Business firm Commission on Oversight and Regime Reform and the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs are both devoted to overseeing and reforming government operations, and each committee conducts oversight in its policy surface area.
Congress also maintains an investigative organization, the Government Accountability Office (GAO). Founded in 1921 equally the General Accounting Part, its original mission was to audit the budgets and fiscal statements sent to Congress by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Director of the Office of Direction and Upkeep. Today, the GAO audits and generates reports on every attribute of the government, ensuring that taxpayer dollars are spent with the effectiveness and efficiency that the American people deserve.
The executive co-operative also polices itself: Sixty-four Inspectors Full general, each responsible for a different bureau, regularly audit and report on the agencies to which they are fastened.
Which Congressional Group is Most Likely Described in the Passage