Which Most Likely Uses Only Alternating Current

Which Most Likely Uses Only Alternating Current.

What is Alternating Electric current?

An alternating current can exist defined equally a current that changes its magnitude and polarity at regular intervals of time. It can also exist defined as an electric current that repeatedly changes or reverses its management reverse to that of Direct Current or DC which always flows in a single direction as shown below.

AC and DC

From the graph, nosotros can see that the charged particles in Air conditioning tend to start moving from zero. Information technology increases to a maximum and so decreases back to zero completing one positive bicycle. The particles and then opposite their direction and achieve the maximum in the opposite management later on which AC over again returns to the original value completing a negative bike. The same bike is repeated once again and again.

Alternating currents are also accompanied normally past alternating voltages. Likewise, alternating electric current is too hands transformed from a higher voltage level to a lower voltage level.

Alternating Current Product

Alternating current tin be produced or generated by using devices that are known as alternators. However, alternate current can too be produced by unlike methods where many circuits are used. One of the most common or simple ways of generating Air conditioning is by using a basic unmarried roll Air conditioning generator which consists of two-pole magnets and a single loop of wire having a rectangular shape.

In this setup, the Air-conditioning generator follows Faraday’s principle of electromagnetic consecration where it converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Meanwhile, AC is supplied to pieces of equipment using 3 wires. They are as follows;

  • Ability is transmitted by the hot wire.
  • The neutral wire which is connected to the earth provides a return path for the current in the hot wire.
  • The third wire that is too connected to the earth is linked to the metal parts of the equipment to mainly eliminate electrical shock hazards.

Application of Alternating Electric current

AC is the grade of current that are mostly used in different appliances. Some of the examples of alternating electric current include audio signal, radio signal, etc. An alternating current has a broad advantage over DC as Air conditioning is able to transmit power over large distances without dandy loss of energy.

Air-conditioning is used more often than not in homes and offices mainly because the generating and transporting of AC across long distances is a lot easier. Meanwhile, Air conditioning tin can be converted to and from high voltages easily using transformers. AC is as well capable of powering electric motors that further catechumen electric energy into mechanical energy. Due to this Air conditioning also finds its use in many big appliances like refrigerators, dishwashers and many other appliances.

Alternate Current Waveform

Earlier we learn more than virtually this topic, let us quickly empathize a few primal terms.

  • The fourth dimension interval between a definite value of two successive cycles is the flow.
  • The number of cycles or number of periods per second is frequency.
  • The maximum value in both directions is the amplitude.

Alternating Current Waveform

The normal waveform of AC in almost of the circuits are sinusoidal in nature in which the positive half period corresponds with the positive direction of the current and vice-versa. In improver, a triangular or foursquare moving ridge tin can too be used to represent the alternating current waveform.

Audio amplifiers that bargain with analogue phonation or music signals produce irregular AC waves. Some electronic oscillators produce square or sawtooth waves.

Also Read:
Differences Between AC and DC

Average Value of Air-conditioning

The average value is unremarkably defined as the average of the instantaneous values of alternate current over a complete cycle. The positive one-half bicycle of asymmetrical waves such equally a sinusoidal voltage or electric current waveform will exist equal to the negative half cycle. This implies that the average value afterwards the completion of a full cycle is equal to naught.

Since, both the cycles do some work the average value is obtained by fugitive the signs. Therefore, the average value of alternating quantities of sinusoidal waves can exist considered by taking the positive cycle only.

RMS Value of Air conditioning Wave

RMS value is defined every bit the square root of ways of squares of instantaneous values. It tin can also be described as the amount of Air-conditioning power that generates the same heating issue as an equivalent DC power.

Phasor Diagrams

The phasor diagram is used to make up one’s mind the phase relationships betwixt two or more sine waves propagating with the same frequency. Here, nosotros use the terms “atomic number 82”, “lag” and also “in-phase”, “out-of-stage” to indicate the relation between one waveform with the other.

Phasor diagrams will be of the form:

Phasor Diagrams

Air-conditioning Circuit Containing Resistance Only

The pure resistive AC circuit contains only pure resistance of R ohms. There will be no effect of inductance and capacitance in this circuit. The alternate current and voltage move along both directions equally backwards and forrad. Therefore, electric current and voltage follow a shape of sine.

In a purely resistive circuit, the power is prodigal by the resistors and the phase of both voltage and current remains the same. This ways that the voltage and electric current reaches a maximum value at the same fourth dimension.

AC Circuit With Resistance Only

Let the supply voltage be,

5 = Vmsinωt ……(one)

The instantaneous value of current flowing through the given circuit is,

i = 5 / R = 5one thousand
/ R sinωt ……(2)

From equation (2), the value of current be maximum at t = 900, then sin t =i

Then, the instantaneous value of current will be,

i = I1000sinωt ……(3)

So, by observing the equation (i) and (three), information technology is clear that in that location is no stage difference betwixt the practical voltage and electric current flowing through the circuit. Meaning, phase bending between voltage and current is zilch.

Hence, in a pure resistive ac excursion, the current is in stage with the voltage.

This tin be expressed in a waveform as,

When current is in phase with the voltage

Air-conditioning Excursion Containing Inductance Only

This blazon of circuit contains only inductance. There will non be any effect of resistance and capacitance in this excursion. Hither, the current volition lag behind the voltage past an bending of xc0.

The circuit volition exist,

AC Circuit Containing Inductance Only

The inductor will reserves electrical free energy in the magnetic field when current flows through information technology. When this current changes, the fourth dimension-varying magnetic field causes emf which opposes the flow of current. This opposition to the flow of current is known as inductive reactance.

Let the voltage applied to the excursion be,

v = Vone thousandsinωt ……(1)

The emf induced in the inductor volition be,

Eastward = -L x di / dt

This emf induced in a circuit is equal and contrary to applied voltage.

v = -due east ……(2)

Putting the value of eastward in (2) we go,

5 = (-L x di / dt)


Vgsinωt = L x di / dt


di = Vm
/ Fifty sinω dt ……(three)

Integrating both sides, we get,

AC Circuit Containing Inductance Problem


Anterior reactance is XL
= ωL

The value of electric current will exist maximum if sin (ωt – π/2) = 1


= 5m
/ XFifty

Employ the value of Im
from (5) and put in (4)

We get,

i = Iyard
sin (ωt – π / 2)

This implies that the current in pure inductive air conditioning circuits lags the voltage by xc0.

This tin be expressed in a waveform as,

Current in pure inductive ac circuits

If the voltage and current are at their tiptop value as a positive value, the power will too be positive. Similarly, if the voltage and current are at a negative peak and so the ability will be negative. This is because of the phase difference between them.

Air-conditioning Excursion Containing Capacitor But

This blazon of excursion includes a pure capacitor merely. It volition not affect the backdrop of resistance and inductance. The capacitor volition store electric power in the electric field. This is known as capacitance.

The electrical field is developed across the plates of the capacitor when a voltage is applied across the capacitor. Likewise, at that place will not exist any current flows betwixt them.

The circuit will be,

AC Circuit Containing Capacitor Only

As we know, a capacitor includes two insulating plates which are separated by a dielectric medium. Usually, a capacitor works as a storage device and it gets charged if the supply is on and it gets discharged if the supply is off.

Permit the voltage applied to the circuit be,

v = Vmsinωt ……(one)

Accuse of the capacitor is,

q = Cv ……(ii)

And then, current menstruation through the circuit volition be,

i = dq / dt

Substituting the value of q in the above equation nosotros get,

i = d (Cv) / dt ……(iii)

At present substitute the value of five in (iii), we get,

AC Circuit Containing Capacitor Problem

Where XC
= 1/C which is capacitive inductance.

The value of current will be maximum if sin(ωt + π/2) = 1.

And then, the maximum value of current,

= 5m
/ XC

Substituting the value of Im
in (4) we get,

i = Im
sin (ωt + π / ii)

This implies that the current flowing through the capacitor leads the voltage by 900.

This tin be expressed in a waveform as,

Current flowing through the capacitor leads the voltage by 90

Alternate Current – Top 10 Near Important & Expected JEE Chief Questions

Alternate Current VS Directly Current

Alternating Electric current Direct Electric current
Information technology is safer to transfer over longer distances and helps to maintain electrical power. Cannot exist transferred over very long distances. It has a tendency to lose electric ability.
Air-conditioning tin can change its direction during electric flow. It does not change its direction during flow and remains constant.
The frequency of AC depends from state to country. The frequency of DC is nothing.
An alternator is used to generate Ac. DC current is generated by generators, photovoltaic cells and batteries.
Electrons continue changing their directions. It tin can be either backward or forwards. Electrons just move only in the forward direction.
Load on AC can exist inductive, capacitive or resistive. Load on DC is ever resistive.

Alternating Current Of import JEE Chief Questions

Oft Asked Questions on Alternating Current

Define the flow of alternating current.

The period of Alternate electric current is the fourth dimension taken past it to complete 1 cycle.

Define the frequency of the alternating current.

The frequency of Air conditioning is the number of cycles completed past the alternating current in one second.

Give one method of generating sinusoidal alternate current.

A sinusoidal Air conditioning can be generated by rotating a curl in a uniform magnetic field at a abiding charge per unit.

What is the RMS value of an Air-conditioning?

The RMS value of an Air-conditioning is the square root of the mean of the squares of the instantaneous values taken over a complete cycle.

What are the advantages of Air-conditioning over DC electric current?

Alternating current tin can be stepped up or stepped down using a transformer.
Using electronic supply units, AC can be converted into DC.
Alternate current devices are more durable since power dissipation is less.
Transmission of electrical power is more than efficient and economical in the grade of AC.

Define period of alternating current.

Period of alternating is the time taken by it to complete ane cycle.

Define frequency of an alternating current.

The frequency of Air-conditioning is the number of cycles completed by the AC in i 2d.

What is the mean value of an Air-conditioning?

Hateful value of Air-conditioning is the mean or boilerplate of the instantaneous values of Ac taken over half a cycle.

Which Most Likely Uses Only Alternating Current

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