# Which of the Following is a Reason to Study Culture

Which of the Following is a Reason to Study Culture.

## one.1: Why Study Intercultural Communication?

• Karen Krumrey-Fulks
• Lane Customs College


Learning Objectives

By the cease of this chapter, readers should:

• Empathise why nosotros study intercultural communication.
• Be able to list and draw the six imperatives.
• Explain how each imperative is related to the others.
• Identify which imperative is the near of import to them.
• Explain how studying intercultural advice tin can lead to increased self-understanding.

Nosotros live in a speedily changing globe with larger forces driving us to interact with others who are culturally unlike from ourselves. National disasters, technology, business and educational opportunities are some of the many forces that pb to intercultural interaction. It would be easy to be overcome past the complexities of the things that you exercise not know or sympathise nearly another culture, just regardless of who we are communicating with, 1 fact is important to retrieve:
the communication choices we make determine the personal, national, and international outcomes that follow.
When we communicate well, we create happy memories, satisfying relationships, and desired outcomes. When we communicate poorly, we can create conflict, bitterness or frustration. By studying intercultural communication, you lot can acquire knowledge and skills to boost your communication competence, while improving your quality of life.

This volume is divided into three sections:
foundation, elements,
and
contexts. Each department volition have several smaller chapters that outline our exploration of intercultural advice. The foundation chapters include the bones principles that underlie the advice process and building blocks of culture. The chemical element chapters explore the parts or elements that must be considered when understanding the bigger picture of intercultural advice. The context chapters testify us how specific contexts or environments are impacted by the foundations and elements. As yous encounter people from different cultures, an understanding of the foundations, elements, and contexts of intercultural communication studies volition prove to be invaluable to your success and happiness when communicating cross-culturally.

What is your reason for studying intercultural communication? Peradventure it was a requirement on the road to achieving your major, and you dutifully signed upward without having given it much thought. Possibly you’ve spent time overseas or enjoyed spending time with an exchange student at your high school. Martin & Nakayama (2011) believe that all our varied reasons can fall into six categories that they telephone call
imperatives.
For our purposes, an
imperative

volition be an important or compelling reason.
Martin & Nakayama (2011) identify the half dozen
imperative
categories as peace, demographic, economic, technological, self-awareness, and ethical.

Human civilization is familiar with conflict. History is full of disharmonize over politics, organized religion, language, resources, and more. The bottom line for the
peace imperative
is a question. Tin can individuals of different races, ethnicities, linguistic communication, and cultures co-be on this planet? Information technology would be naïve to assume that simply understanding intercultural advice problems would cease war and conflict, only this question does underscore the need for all of united states to learn more than about cultural groups other than our own.

The term demographics means the
characteristics of a population,
as classified by race, ethnicity, age, sex, income, and more.
U.S. demographics, also as those around the earth, are changing dramatically. Co-ordinate to the Population Reference Bureau (2019), which computes a “diverseness index,” united states in the Usa south, southwest, and west will see the biggest affect from clearing. Many of those immigrants will be economic refugees directly impacted past climate change. They volition come searching for new ways to back up themselves and their families. Others will exist victims of violence and political instability.

The United States has an interesting history in human relationship to its’ immigrants. A unremarkably used metaphor called
the melting pot
assumes that immigrants and cultural minorities are assimilated into the US majority culture, losing their original cultures. Most researchers believe that
the melting pot
is a myth, and a amend metaphor would exist the
or rather the diversity of immigrants and minorities is still apparent, but role of a nourishing whole.

Vocabulary important to the
demographic imperative
are
heterogeneous
and
homogeneous.
If a population is considered
heterogeneous,
at that place are
differences in the grouping, civilization, or population.
If a population is considered
homogeneous,
there are
similarities in the group, culture, or population.
Diversity
is the
quality of beingness unlike.
A
nativistic
group is
extremely patriotic to the point of beingness anti-immigrant.

The
demographic imperative
is not simply about immigration though, information technology’due south likewise nigh an crumbling workforce, and economic pressure level. Well-nigh families need 2 incomes to live what is consider a middle-grade existence or to generate savings plenty to retire on. Equally the demographics change, culture changes.

The recent tendency toward
globalization
or
the cosmos of a world marketplace in goods, services, labor, majuscule, and engineering science
is dramatic. To be constructive in this new global marketplace, nosotros must understand how business is conducted in other countries and cultures because more and more of our domestic economic growth depends on global success. An accurate understanding of the economies around the world is also crucial to compete on the world stage. The bottom line when considering the
economic imperative
is the ultimate touch of globalization on the average person.

In 1967, a futurist named Marshall McLuhan coined the iconoclastic term,
global village,
which has become the vanguard for the
technology imperative.
The term
refers to a globe in which communication technology unites people in remote parts of the globe.
Every bit yous know, it was decades later earlier personal calculating came into being, but today new technology is introduced well-nigh daily. Applied science has made communication easier. Information is so easy to admission and manipulate, that nosotros are now confronted with the impact of
false news
and purposeful
disinformation.

Technology is non simply about ease of use though, it’southward as well most increasing contact with others. We tin increment contact with people who are different than usa, but we can too increment contact with people who are the same equally the states. In fact, inquiry tells u.s. that humans prefer to utilise technology to contact those who are
homogeneous. Diasporic groups,
ethnic and/or national groups that are geographically dispersed throughout the globe,
are using applied science to maintain contact every bit they disperse from refugee camps to host nations. Technology is also an
identity management
tool. Individuals use technology to brand sense of their multiple images concerning their sense of cocky in different social contexts.

Communication technology has go and then important and so intertwined with the economical imperative that the term,
digital divide,
has come into being.
Digital natives, or
people who grew up using technology,
are often citizens of wealthy nations that alive lives of privilege and accept improve economic prospects because of their technological admission. People who grew up in poorer nations without technological skills and access, often have fewer economical opportunities. At the end of the last century, this idea was captured in the statement, “they live on the other side of the tracks.” The other side of the train tracks referred to a less desirable location. In today’due south world, the “tracks” have been replaced by engineering, and the
digital carve up.

Does the digital divide lead you to ponder ethical issues of privilege and wealth? Ideals,
the principles of carry that help govern behaviors of individuals and groups,
frequently create cultural questions that lead to our understanding of the
ethical imperative.
Upstanding principles often arise from community consensus of what is good or bad, correct or wrong, and what “ought” to be as opposed to what “is.” Some ethical issues are
explicit
or conspicuously stated within a culture, while other are
implicit
or non clearly stated.

When pondering upstanding situations and cultural mores, there are ii ways humans view the situation, relativistically or universally.
If you are a
relativist,
you lot believe that
no cultural pattern is inherently correct or wrong, everything depends on perspective.
In other words, you lot might non make the same option yourself, only are willing to understand why others would make that choice. If you are a
universalist,
yous believe that
cultural differences are simply superficial, and that central notions of correct and wrong are universal.
In other words, anybody should be making the same choices for the same reasons. Although
universalism
and
relativism
are thought of equally an either/or choice (non-dualistic), realistically nigh people are a combination of both (dualistic). There are some issues yous might hold strict opinions about while other issues you are willing to be more than open up about.

One of the most of import reasons for studying intercultural advice is the awareness it raises of our own cultural identity and background. The
cocky-awareness imperative
helps the states to gain insights into our own culture along with our intercultural experiences. All cultures are
ethnocentric
by their very natures.
Ethnocentrism
is a
tendency to retrieve that our own civilisation is superior to other cultures.
Most of u.s.a. don’t even realize that nosotros recollect this fashion, but we do. Sure, we might acknowledge that our civilization isn’t perfect, yet nosotros still recall that nosotros’re doing improve than that culture to the northward or southward of united states of america. Ethnocentrism tin lead to stereotyping, prejudice, and bigotry. Information technology will be discussed in greater depth in coming chapters.

The contrary of ethnocentrism is
cocky-reflexivity
or the
procedure of learning to understand oneself and i’south position in society.
Learning nigh others helps us to sympathize ourselves. Real people with existent lives struggle with decisions only like you practise. They have values, and beliefs that govern their choices. Listening to the voices of people who are different tin can lead to different ways of seeing the world. Developing cocky-awareness may also lead to an increased awareness of beingness caught up in the political, economic, and historical systems that are non associated with an individual’s selection.

As you ponder your reasons for studying intercultural communication, it is hoped that you make a conscious endeavor to become more than aware of the communication practices of yourself and others. Much of the communication principles and theories that you learn about in this book occur at a subconscious level. As y’all learn more, challenge yourself to develop ascertainment skills so you tin can “see” more. Equally you learn more, become more flexible in your interpretation of the messages that you are receiving from others. As you larn more, begin to create meaning “with” others and avoid dictating “to” others. The study of intercultural communication is the report of the variation of your story within the human story. Let’southward get started.

## Fundamental Vocabulary

• Imperative
• Peace
• Demographics
• Economic
• Technological
• Upstanding
• Self-Sensation
• Heterogeneous
• Homogeneous
• Variety
• Melting Pot
• Nativistic
• Global Hamlet
• Diasporic groups
• Identity management
• Explicit
• Implicit
• Relativity
• Universality
• Ethnocentrism
• Self-reflexivity

### References:

1. Martin, J. N., & Nakayama, T. Thousand. (2011).
Experiencing intercultural communication
(5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill College Instruction.

## Which of the Following is a Reason to Study Culture

Source: https://socialsci.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Communication/Intercultural_Communication/Book%3A_Intercultural_Communication_for_the_Community_College_(Karen_Krumrey-Fulks)/01%3A_Chapters/1.01%3A_Why_Study_Intercultural_Communication