Which of the Following is Not an Example of Scaffolding

Which of the Following is Not an Example of Scaffolding.

  Scaffolding learning

In this section, we adopt scaffolding equally a standpoint for exploring diversity in the language of schooling classroom. Heterogeneity, naturally, adds to the need for learning support, but it is important to go along in listen that learner groups are ever heterogeneous. Indeed, information technology is important to remember that the presence of second linguistic communication learners (for whom the language of schooling is not the mother tongue) is beneficial as they claiming teachers to develop their teaching practices to be inclusive of learners with varying linguistic communication skills, proficiency profiles and cultural backgrounds. One size rarely fits all in whatsoever classroom. Therefore, the ability to differentiate activities and content is a noteworthy skill in a teacher’southward repertoire.

What will you larn in this department

The aims of the section are (see also Marille 2011, 33–36):

  • to be able to reverberate on 1’southward ain teaching and the teaching practices commonly adopted in one’s ain region
  • to recognise scaffolding learning practices and to be able to apply them co-ordinate to the learners’ needs
  • to get to know how to help students to learn effective ways for studying languages

Reflect on the central ideas

What is scaffolding? How is scaffolding applied in the teaching of language of schooling?

The term “scaffolding” refers to the support that enhances learners’ power to develop new knowledge and skills that are transferable to new contexts.

Scaffolding is past definition temporary assist that assists students to go more independent and capable of handling learning more on their own. What a student can with support today, (s)he will be able to do alone tomorrow. Scaffolding makes the students aware of how to do the learning tasks and how to learn new content, so that they will exist better able to complete tasks on their own.

According to van Lier (2004: 158), scaffolding learning is not limited to instructor–student interactions. Other types of interactional dimensions can be identified in scaffolding:

  • Help from more capable peers or adults: a learner instruction another learner
  • Interaction with equal peers: collaborative problem solving for gaining new knowledge
  • Interaction with less capable peers: learning by teaching, opportunity to verbalise, clarify and extend one’s own knowledge of the subject affair
  • Working alone and using one’s inner resources: learning strategies, resources in the environment, inner speech communication, noesis, experience, memory, strength

Overall, the power to cocky-regulate governs all learning. Learning presupposes initiative and agency on the part of the learner.

i) Reflect on these definitions of scaffolding compared to language of schooling teaching practices in your country:

  • How is scaffolding applied?
  • What types of scaffolding are usually adopted in the most target-oriented manner?
  • What types of scaffolding have a minor part in current didactics practices? Why?

2) Look at the basic tasks taken from linguistic communication of schooling textbooks.

  • Keeping the iii learner profiles in listen, consider what types of scaffolding can be linked to these tasks.
  • How would you lot develop the activity to provide further possibilities for scaffolding for all learners?

Scaffolding on macro and micro levels

Scaffolding ranges from macro-level (eastward.g.planned curriculum progression over fourth dimension) to micro-level (the pedagogical procedures used in a particular classroom activity). Micro-level scaffolding is often improvised, equally the need for information technology arises spontaneously during ongoing classroom interaction between students or between the teacher and the students.

Below is a list of characteristics related to macro and micro-level scaffolding and to how content-based language learning is made effective.

  • Do you lot consider these characteristics typical to didactics the language of schooling? What characteristics are better represented and which ones less?
Macro-level, planned scaffolding
  • Weave new information into existing mental structures by building on students’ existing noesis and electric current linguistic communication skills in their mother tongue and second language.
  • Sequence the tasks so that each task serves as a building block in relation to the subsequent ane.
  • Develop students’ metacognition by setting explicit learning goals and sharing and assessing them with them.
  • Provide effective participation for all students (work in pairs, groups, individually and with the whole class under teacher-management).
  • Support effective student interaction in groups by providing a thinking canvas or set of instructions to assistance them stay focused.
  • Reintroduce concepts cyclically at higher levels of complexity and inter-relatedness and let students time to develop their understanding of ideas and to self-correct their misunderstandings.
  • Do non simplify the curriculum simply rather amplify and enrich the linguistic and extralinguistic context, so that students become many opportunities to come to terms with the information involved and may construct their understanding on the basis of multiple clues and perspectives encountered in a variety of form activities.
  • Model tasks, activities and anticipated language use. Provide clear examples of what a developing product looks similar. Walk students through an interaction or first practice the action together as a class activity. Requite examples of appropriate apply of language in different genres but also of linguistic communication functions, such as describing, comparing, summarising, evaluating and and so on.
  • Accustom your students to analyse and talk almost language use. Draw their attention to differences and similarities between written and spoken genres, varieties and languages. Build on their metalinguistic awareness and help them develop it further.
Micro-level
  • Listen to students’ intended meanings, not for an expected (correct) reply. Try to reach their fashion of thinking.
  • Tap into students’ prior experiences.
  • Use think alouds, which model your thought procedure to students every bit you read a text or solve a problem.
  • Remind students of the cardinal points by repeating regularly what has been said.
  • Re-discussion students’ responses in more bookish or technical terms in order to highlight the key concepts and expressions to be learnt.
  • Provide opportunities for students to say more and rethink and alter their expressions.
  • Allow learners time to think and respond. Help them to extend their responses by asking further questions.
  • Use visual aids (east.chiliad. graphic organizers, pictures, and charts) to represent ideas and organise information.
  • Repeat cardinal information in many ways (orally, visually, in writing).
  • Check students’ understanding oft and in multiple ways.
  • In your opinion, what characteristics should be amend represented in language of schooling instruction practices?
  • Tin can y’all think of other ways of scaffolding learning, especially whatever relevant to the linguistic communication of schooling classroom?

References:

Walqui 2006. Scaffolding Instruction for English Language Learners: A Conceptual Framework. The International Periodical of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism Vol. nine, No. two, 2006.

Walqui & van Lier 2010.
Scaffolding the academic success of adolescent English linguistic communication learners: A teaching of Promise. WestEd.

Activities

  • Scaffolding reading
  • Scaffolding writing
  • Scaffolding literacy skills through literature
  • Scaffolding literacy skills through news texts
  • Scaffolding web search

Scaffolding reading

Function 1

Read the guidelines for scaffolding reading.

What principles exercise yous prefer on regular basis? Which ones are part of electric current language of schooling practices in classrooms in your region or land? What would you similar to learn more about?

Part 2

Choose a reading task typically used in your land and expand on it following the guidelines presented above.

Scaffolding Writing

Part ane

Go dorsum to your own school and teaching experiences with writing:

  • How is writing commonly supported in the language of schooling classroom in your country? What kinds of pre-activities are typically used? What kind of help is provided during the writing process? When do the students get feedback, from whom and in what ways?
  • How exercise students feel about writing in school?
  • What writing instruction issues require development in your opinion?

Part 2

In a linguistically and culturally heterogeneous group, information technology is not enough to provide topics to write about, students need extensive scaffolding and genre modeling. Writing activities should not exist separate but should be integrated into curriculum content focused on language use and instruction. The writing process integrates all the language skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing). It besides requires some inquiry and written report skills. Information technology is crucial that the scaffolding is provided before students are expected to write by themselves.

It is not enough to teach writing skills in the language class but they should exist explicitely taught across the curriculum and integrated into content studies. Writing skills tin can exist used across different languages. Therefore, information technology is useful to learn most students’ language and literacy backgrounds and depict upon resource in the female parent tongue during the writing process.

Scaffolding writing requires a pedagogy sequence that provides support only aims at developing independence. As genres are socially constructed, it is natural todevelop writing skills through joint practice. Using a social approach to learning, the teacher can assist students to compose texts that they could not compose independently.

The post-obit approach to scaffolding writing draws from various genre-based writing models and describes a series of scaffolded developmental steps in which teachers and peers play a major role. It sequences teaching in such a mode that teachers tin model both writing product (the genre of focus) and writing process to their students.

Part 3

Evaluate the above approach to developing writing skills:

  • What are the pros and cons of the arroyo?
  • Have yous tried this kind of approach yourself or experienced something like equally a educatee?
  • Could the approach be adopted in your context?

Cull a writing task typically used in your country and expand on it post-obit the guidelines presented to a higher place.

Scaffolding literacy skills through literature

Part ane: Science fiction brusque story

Keeping the three learner profiles in mind, read the brusque story Supertoys Last All Summer Long.

  • How volition the students find the text?
  • What kind of back up might they need for reading the text?
  • What kind of tasks might be useful for them?
  • What kind of activities could be done prior to reading, during reading and after reading the text?
  • What vocabulary could be taught before or during the reading of the text?

Part 2: Language of schooling textbook in your country

Explore some textbooks used in the educational activity of the language of schooling.

  • What kind of literature is introduced in them? What types of fiction?
  • How is the reading of literature supported in them?
  • How would the activities cater for the students in our case?
  • Are the tasks engaging or solely focused on information retrieval?
  • Do students need really to understand the text to answer the questions?

Role 3: A language of schooling textbook in focus

Consider the task types of a Finnish language of schooling textbook.
Re-read the short story that is this fourth dimension presented with tasks that guide students’ reading in a Finnish textbook. Focus now on the questions raised during the process of reading it. Keeping our 3 student profiles in listen, weigh upward the pros and cons of the approach adopted and activities used in the textbook.

  • Which elements support the learning of students with weaker skills in the language of schooling?
  • Are there some problematic elements that require farther development?

Supertoys Concluding All Summer Long (with guiding questions).

(Source: Mikkola, Luukka & Ahonen 2006:
Voima. Äidinkieli ja kirjallisuus 8. WSOY.)

Ideas kit for follow-up activities

Download

Scaffolding literacy skills through news texts

Part ane: How is news dealt with?

  • Have a expect at the textbook(s) used in your language of schooling classroom. How are news or other media texts presented in the book?
  • Are there any instructions for reading (e.g. reading strategies)?
  • What problems are explained in the book and what are students expected to infer or analyse?
  • What are the pros and cons of the approach that the textbook adopts? What aspects should exist adult for the do good of learners with varying language skills?

Role 2: A news article as an example

  • Take a await at a news article about football actor Zlatan Ibrahimović in  English language, Finnish and German.
  • Use the net to search for this news detail in some other linguistic communication(due south) you are familiar with. The same news itemwas published in many countries on  12 June 2013 – try the search words:
    Zlatan
    &
    the Faroe Islands. How does the version in a different language differ from the English version? Identify the facts that are highlighted or those non mentioned at all when compared to the English version.
  • How could this text exist used in language of schooling learning and teaching in order to back up plurilingualism and students’ first languages?
  • What kind of topics and themes does the text offer for classroom chat? (students’ opinions, values and attitudes)

Office 3: Developing skills in the language of schooling

Keeping the 3 learner profiles in mind, develop tasks related to the Zlatan text for each of them. Pay attention in particular to the post-obit points:

  • How to supervise learners’ reading and develop their reading strategies?
  • How to brand them learn more almost news as a genre?
  • How to make use of their language repertoire?
  • How to amend their  information searching skills?

Scaffolding web search

Part 1: Strategies for efficient web search

  1. How would you guide the students through the process of searching for information on the web? Create brief guidelines in small groups and then in larger groups. Decide what the five most of import pieces of communication are. Share.
  2. Await at an case of practice
    : tips for using Wikipedia and ii tasks that deal with finding important information. These activities are targeted at lower secondary school students. Try these tips out with a Wikipedia article.
  3. What are the benefits of this blazon of activity? How would you lot develop it further?
  4. Does this kind of instruction see the needs of our three learner profiles? Requite reasons.

Part 2. Using plurilingual resources in web search

Your students are given the following chore:

Use unlike kinds of resources to notice out

  • What is the European Spousal relationship (EU)?
  • How has the Eu afflicted peoples’ lives in Europe?

How would you collaborate with the teachers of history, social studies and other languages to help your students carry out the job?

How would y’all help your pupils to:

  • collaborate during the task
  • use resources to observe relevant information
  • employ the languages they know
  • share knowledge
  • report their findings

Also, accept a look at the Developing collaboration part.

Header image based on “The ladder or life is total of splinters” past Mykl Roventine (CC By-NC-SA two.0).


Which of the Following is Not an Example of Scaffolding

Source: https://maledive.ecml.at/Studymaterials/School/Scaffoldinglearning/tabid/3618/language/en-GB/Default.aspx