Which Statement Best Describes the Roman Language of Latin.
6c. The Pax Romana
The term “Pax Romana,” which literally ways “Roman peace,” refers to the time period from 27 B.C.E. to 180 C.Eastward. in the Roman Empire.
This 200-yr period saw unprecedented peace and economic prosperity throughout the Empire, which spanned from England in the north to Kingdom of morocco in the s and Iraq in the east. During the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire reached its meridian in terms of land area, and its population swelled to an estimated 70 meg people.
This map depicts the Roman Empire in 117 C.E., at the acme of the Pax Romana.
Nevertheless, Rome’due south citizens were relatively secure, and the government generally maintained police, gild, and stability. The Pax Romana began when Octavian became the leader of the Roman Empire.
Civil War and More
After the murder of Julius Caesar, a flow of ceremonious war erupted in Rome. Out of this turmoil emerged the 2nd Triumvirate, consisting of Lepidus, Antony, and Octavian, who was Julius Caesar’southward nephew. This new triumvirate ruled Rome for a decade, but as happened with the Starting time Triumverate, differences among the leaders eventually emerged.
The romance between Antony and Cleopatra has inspired the imaginations of artists for a millennium.
Octavian defeated Lepidus in battle, and then turned his armies against the more powerful Mark Antony. Antony had fallen in love with and married the spellbinding queen of Arab republic of egypt, Cleopatra. At the Battle of Actium off the coast of Greece in 31 B.C.E., Octavian’southward navy defeated the navy of Antony and Cleopatra, who later both committed suicide.
Octavian returned to Rome triumphant and gave himself the title of princeps or “first denizen.” Octavian was careful not to upset the Senate by declaring himself dictator as his uncle Julius Caesar had done. Even though Octavian ruled as a de facto dictator, he maintained the Senate and other institutions of the republican government.
In 27 B.C.E., the Senate bestowed the holy championship of Augustus upon Octavian. Augustus, equally he became known, ruled for 41 years, and the policies he enacted lay the groundwork for the peace and stability of the Pax Romana.
All Roads Lead to Rome
The 200 years of the Pax Romana saw many advances and accomplishments, especially in engineering and the arts. To assistance maintain their sprawling empire, the Romans built an extensive system of roads. These durable road facilitated the move of troops and advice. The Romans built aqueducts to carry water overland to cities and farms.
The Roman army built the roads that connected the vast Roman empire. By layering sand, cement, and stone, they created durable roads that lasted long after the fall of Rome.
Many of the advances in compages and building relied upon the Romans’ discovery of concrete. Physical made possible the cosmos of huge rounded arches and domes.
One of the virtually famous structures built during the Pax Romana, the Pantheon in Rome, has one of the largest freestanding domes in the earth to this twenty-four hour period.
During the Pax Romana, many of Rome’s finest writers (such as Horace, Virgil, Ovid, and Livy) produced literary and poetic masterpieces. Rome became the economical, political, and cultural uppercase of the entire Western world.
Caligula’southward bizarre and sometimes sadistic behavior eventually led to his assassination in 41 C.E.
After Augustus’s death in 14 C.E., other Roman emperors ruled with varying effectiveness. One emperor, Caligula, was mentally ill and regularly abused his ability. He was so sensitive about his alopecia that he prohibited anyone from looking downwardly upon his head and shaved some people who had a full heads of pilus.
Caligula was a savage sadist who took slap-up pleasure in watching people existence put to expiry. In fact, he often requested that killings be prolonged equally much equally possible. Caligula also had a tremendous sexual appetite and committed incest with his sisters.
“Consider when thou art much vexed or grieved, that human’s life is merely a moment, and after a short fourth dimension nosotros are all laid out expressionless.” -Marcus Aurelius
He fifty-fifty invited his favorite equus caballus to eat at formal state dinners.
Eventually, his bizarre and tyrannical behavior turned the Romans confronting him, and in 41 C.E., Caligula was assassinated past members of his ain Praetorian guard.
Not all emperors were unfit to rule. In fact, a series of leaders known every bit the Five Good Emperors ruled in succession and presided over a prolonged flow of peace and prosperity.
The last of these emperors, Marcus Aurelius, was the concluding emperor of the Pax Romana. His reign was followed by the disastrous reign of his brutal son Commodus (160-192 C.Eastward.). By this time, the Empire was struggling to concur off attacking tribes on the frontiers.
Which Statement Best Describes the Roman Language of Latin