Which Was Not a Cause of the European Enlightenment

Which Was Not a Cause of the European Enlightenment.

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Enlightenment
, French
siècle des Lumières (literally “century of the Enlightened”), High german
Aufklärung, a European intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries in which ideas concerning God, reason, nature, and humanity were synthesized into a worldview that gained wide assent in the West and that instigated revolutionary developments in art, philosophy, and politics. Central to Enlightenment thought were the use and celebration of
reason, the power by which humans understand the universe and improve their own condition. The goals of rational humanity were considered to be cognition, freedom, and happiness.






A brief handling of the Enlightenment follows. For full treatment,
see
Europe, history of: The Enlightenment.







The age of reason: human being understanding of the universe

The powers and uses of reason had commencement been explored past the
philosophers of aboriginal Greece. The Romans adopted and preserved much of Greek culture, notably including the ideas of a rational natural order and natural police force. Amongst the turmoil of empire, even so, a new concern arose for personal salvation, and the mode was paved for the triumph of the
Christian religion. Christian thinkers gradually found uses for their Greco-Roman heritage. The arrangement of idea known equally
Scholasticism, culminating in the work of Thomas Aquinas, resurrected reason as a tool of understanding. In Thomas’southward presentation, Aristotle provided the method for obtaining that truth which was ascertainable past reason alone; since Christian revelation contained a higher truth, Thomas placed the natural law axiomatic to reason subordinate to, just not in disharmonize with, eternal law and divine police.






The intellectual and political building of Christianity, seemingly impregnable in the Middle Ages, fell in turn to the assaults made on information technology by
humanism, the
Renaissance, and the Protestant
Reformation. Humanism bred the experimental science of Francis Bacon, Nicolaus Copernicus, and Galileo and the mathematical investigations of René Descartes, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, and Isaac Newton. The Renaissance rediscovered much of Classical civilisation and revived the notion of humans equally creative beings, and the Reformation, more straight but in the long run no less effectively, challenged the monolithic authority of the
Roman Catholic Church. For Martin Luther, as for Bacon or Descartes, the way to truth lay in the application of human reason. Both the Renaissance and the Reformation were less movements for intellectual freedom than changes of authorisation, but, since they appealed to different authorities, they contributed to the breakdown of the community of idea. Received authority, whether of Ptolemy in the sciences or of the church in matters of the spirit, was to be bailiwick to the probings of unfettered minds.




Vikings. Viking warriors hold swords and shields. 9th c. AD seafaring warriors raided the coasts of Europe, burning, plundering and killing. Marauders or pirates came from Scandinavia, now Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. European History

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The successful application of reason to any question depended on its correct application—on the development of a
methodology of reasoning that would serve equally its own guarantee of validity. Such a methodology was most spectacularly achieved in the
sciences and
mathematics, where the logics of induction and deduction made possible the creation of a sweeping new cosmology. The formative influence for the Enlightenment was not so much content every bit method. The great geniuses of the 17th century confirmed and amplified the concept of a globe of calculable regularity, but, more than importantly, they seemingly proved that rigorous mathematical reasoning offered the means, independent of God’s revelation, of establishing truth. The success of
Newton, in detail, in capturing in a few mathematical equations the laws that govern the motions of the planets, gave corking impetus to a growing faith in the man chapters to achieve knowledge. At the aforementioned time, the idea of the universe as a mechanism governed past a few elementary—and discoverable—laws had a subversive event on the concepts of a personal God and private salvation that were primal to Christianity.








Which Was Not a Cause of the European Enlightenment

Source: https://www.britannica.com/event/Enlightenment-European-history