Why is Terracing Used in Southeast Asian Agriculture

Why is Terracing Used in Southeast Asian Agriculture.

Terrain formed by tiered platforms

Rice terrace in Republic of indonesia

Diagram showing Inca terrace engineering for agronomics.

In agriculture, a
terrace
is a piece of sloped airplane that has been cut into a series of successively receding apartment surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming. This blazon of landscaping is therefore chosen
terracing. Graduated terrace steps are unremarkably used to farm on hilly or mountainous terrain. Terraced fields subtract both erosion and surface runoff, and may be used to support growing crops that require irrigation, such as rice. The Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras accept been designated as a UNESCO Earth Heritage Site considering of the significance of this technique.[1]

Uses

[edit]

Terraced paddy fields are used widely in rice, wheat and barley farming in east, south, southwest, and southeast Asia, as well every bit the Mediterranean Basin, Africa, and South America. Drier-climate terrace farming is common throughout the Mediterranean Bowl, where they are used for vineyards, olive trees, cork oak, and other crops.[
citation needed
]

Ancient history

[edit]

Terracing is likewise used for sloping terrain; the Hanging Gardens of Babylon may accept been built on an bogus mountain with stepped terraces, such every bit those on a ziggurat.[
citation needed
]

At the seaside Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, the villa gardens of Julius Caesar’s father-in-law were designed in terraces to give pleasant and varied views of the Bay of Naples.[
commendation needed
]

Intensive terrace farming is believed to accept been skillful before the early 15th century AD in W Africa.[2]
[3]
Terraces were used by many groups, notably the Mafa,[4]
Ngas, Gwoza,[5]
and the Dogon.[6]

Recent history

[edit]

It was long held that steep mount landscapes are not conducive to, or do not even let, agricultural mechanization. In the 1970s in the European Alps, pasture farms began mechanizing the management of alpine pastures and harvesting of fodder grasses through use of single beam two-wheel tractors (2WTs) and very depression centre of gravity articulated steering 4-wheel tractors. Their designs by various European manufacturers were initially quite elementary but effective, allowing them to cross slopes approaching twenty%. In the 2000s new designs of wheels and tires, tracks, etc, and incorporation of electronics for better and safer command, allowed these machines to operate on slopes greater than 20% with various implements such as reaper-harvesters, rakes, balers, and transport trailers.[
citation needed
]

In Asian sub-tropical countries, a similar procedure has begun with the introduction of smaller, lower-tech and much lower-priced 2WTs in the four-9 horsepower range that can be safely operated in the small, narrow terraces, and are light enough to be lifted and lowered from 1 terrace to the adjacent. What is different from the Alpine use is that these 2WTs are beingness used for cultivation and crop establishment of maize, wheat, and potato crops, and with their small 60-70cm-broad rotovators and special muzzle wheels are puddling the terraces for transplanted and broadcast rice. Farmers are too using the engines every bit stationary power sources for powering water pumps and threshers. Fifty-fifty more than recently farmers are experimenting with utilise of pocket-sized reaper-harvester attachments. In Nepal, the low costs of these more often than not Chinese-made machines and the increased productivity they produce[7]
have meant that this scale-appropriate mechanism is spreading beyond Nepal’s Himalaya Mountains and likely into the other countries of the Himalaya and Hindu Kush.[
citation needed
]

Southward America

[edit]

In the Southward American Andes, farmers have used terraces, known as
andenes,
for over a one thousand years to farm potatoes, maize, and other native crops. Terraced farming was developed by the Wari culture and other peoples of the south-cardinal Andes before grand AD, centuries earlier they were used by the Inka, who adopted them. The terraces were built to make the virtually efficient use of shallow soil and to enable irrigation of crops by allowing runoff to occur through the outlet.[8]

The Inka people congenital on these, developing a organisation of canals, aqueducts, and puquios to directly h2o through dry country and increase fertility levels and growth.[9]
These terraced farms are found wherever mount villages have existed in the Andes. They provided the food necessary to support the populations of great Inca cities and religious centres such equally Machu Picchu.[
commendation needed
]

Canary Islands

[edit]

Terraced fields are common in islands with steep slopes. The Canary Islands nowadays a complex system of terraces covering the mural from the littoral irrigated plantations to the dry fields in the highlands. These terraces, which are named
cadenas
(bondage), are built with stone walls of skillful design, which include attached stairs and channels.[x]

England

[edit]

In Onetime English, a terrace was besides called a “lynch” (lynchet). An example of an ancient Lynch Mill is in Lyme Regis. The water is directed from a river by a duct along a terrace. This fix-upward was used in steep hilly areas in the Great britain.[11]

Nihon

[edit]

In Nihon, some of the
100 Selected Terraced Rice Fields
(in Japanese: 日本の棚田百選一覧), from Iwate in the north to Kagoshima in the south, are slowly disappearing, but volunteers are helping the farmers both to maintain their traditional methods and for sightseeing purposes.[12]

Gallery

[edit]

See also

[edit]

  • Anden
  • Honghe Hani Rice Terraces
    • Yuanyang Canton, Yunnan
  • Banaue Rice Terraces
  • Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras
  • Satoyama
  • Terrace garden
  • Terraced wall

References

[edit]


  1. ^


    “World Heritage List”.
    UNESCO
    . Retrieved
    2012-09-22
    .

    they are Wide flat steps

  2. ^


    Widgren, Mats (2009). “Mapping precolonial African agricultural systems”. p. 5.


  3. ^


    Genest, Serge; Muller-Kosack, Gerhard (2003). “The Way of the Beer: Ritual Re-Enactment of History amidst the Mafa, Terrace Farmers of the Mandara Mountains (Northward Republic of cameroon)”
    (PDF).
    Africa: Journal of the International African Institute.
    73
    (4): 642–643. doi:ten.2307/3556793. ISSN 0001-9720. JSTOR 3556793.



  4. ^


    Fred Zaal (1 Apr 2016).
    Sustainable Land Management in the Tropics: Explaining the Miracle. Routledge. pp. 145–. ISBN978-1-317-04776-6.



  5. ^


    Gwimbe, Samuel Barde (2014). “Aboriginal Terraces on Highland Fringes South of the Chad Basin”.
    African Indigenous Knowledge and the Disciplines. Rotterdam: SensePublishers. pp. 45–61. doi:10.1007/978-94-6209-770-4_6. ISBN978-94-6209-770-4.



  6. ^


    Molefi Kete Asante; Ama Mazama (26 Nov 2008).
    Encyclopedia of African Religion. SAGE Publications. p. 328. ISBN978-one-5063-1786-i.



  7. ^

    Paudel, G.P., A. McDonald, D.B. Rahut, D.B KC, and South. Justice 2019 Scale-appropriate mechanization impacts on productivity among smallholders: Prove from rice systems in the mid-hills of Nepal. Land Use Policy 85(2019):104-113.

  8. ^


    “Terrace cultivation | agriculture”.
    Encyclopedia Britannica.



  9. ^


    “Farming Like the Incas”.
    Smithsonian Magazine
    . Retrieved
    2015-09-xx
    .



  10. ^

    Martín, Lidia & González Morales, A & Ojeda, Antonio A.. (2016). Towards a new valuation of cultural terraced landscapes: The heritage of terraces in the Canary Islands (Kingdom of spain). 26. 499-512. 10.19233/ASHS.2016.31.

  11. ^


    Whittington, Thousand. (1967-01-01). “Towards a Terminology for Strip Lynchets”.
    The Agricultural History Review.
    xv
    (2): 103–107. JSTOR 40273237.



  12. ^

    An Agricultural Wonder: Nippon’s Vanishing Terraced Rice Fields (Photos) (Nippon.com)

External links

[edit]

  • Terrace Fields around the Earth



Why is Terracing Used in Southeast Asian Agriculture

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrace_(earthworks)